Velpanat

Velpanat

sofosbuvir + velpatasvir

Manufacturer:

Natco Pharma

Distributor:

Integrated Market Services
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir.
Description
Each film-coated tablet contains 400 mg sofosbuvir and 100 mg velpatasvir.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Direct acting antiviral. ATC code: not yet assigned.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Sofosbuvir is a pan-genotypic inhibitor of the HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is essential for viral replication. Sofosbuvir is a nucleotide prodrug that undergoes intracellular metabolism to form the pharmacologically active uridine analogue triphosphate (GS-461203), which can be incorporated into HCV RNA by the NS5B polymerase and acts as a chain terminator. GS-461203 (the active metabolite of sofosbuvir) is neither an inhibitor of human DNA and RNA polymerases nor an inhibitor of mitochondrial RNA polymerase.
Velpatasvir is a HCV inhibitor targeting the HCV NS5A protein, which is essential for both RNA replication and the assembly of HCV virions. In vitro resistance selection and cross-resistance studies indicate velpatasvir targets NS5A as its mode of action.
Antiviral activity: The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of sofosbuvir and velpatasvir against full-length or chimeric replicons encoding NS5B and NS5A sequences from the laboratory strains are presented in Table 1. The EC50 values of sofosbuvir and velpatasvir against clinical isolates are presented in Table 2. (See Tables 1 and 2.)

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The presence of 40% human serum had no effect on the anti-HCV activity of sofosbuvir but reduced the anti-HCV activity of velpatasvir by 13-fold against genotype 1a HCV replicons.
Evaluation of sofosbuvir in combination with velpatasvir showed no antagonistic effect in reducing HCV RNA levels in replicon cells.
Resistance: In cell culture: HCV replicons with reduced susceptibility to sofosbuvir have been selected in cell culture for multiple genotypes including 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 4a, 5a and 6a. Reduced susceptibility to sofosbuvir was associated with the primary NS5B substitution S282T in all replicon genotypes examined. Site-directed mutagenesis of the S282T substitution in replicons of genotype 1 to 6 conferred 2- to 18-fold reduced susceptibility to sofosbuvir and reduced the replication viral capacity by 89% to 99% compared to the corresponding wild-type. In biochemical assays, the ability of the active triphosphate of sofosbuvir (GS-461203) to inhibit recombinant NS5B polymerase from genotypes 1b, 2a, 3a and 4a expressing the S282T substitution was reduced compared to its ability to inhibit wild-type recombinant NS5B polymerase, as indicated by a 8.5- to 24-fold increase in the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50).
In vitro selection of HCV replicons with reduced susceptibility to velpatasvir was performed in cell culture for multiple genotypes including 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 4a, 5a and 6a. Variants were selected at NS5A resistance associated positions 24, 28, 30, 31, 32, 58, 92 and 93. The resistance associated variants (RAVs) selected in 2 or more genotypes were F28S, L31I/V and Y93H. Site-directed mutagenesis of known NS5A RAVs showed that substitutions conferring a > 100-fold reduction in velpatasvir susceptibility are M28G, A92K and Y93H/N/R/W in genotype 1a, A92K in genotype 1b, C92T and Y93H/N in genotype 2b, Y93H in genotype 3, and L31V and P32A/L/Q/R in genotype 6. No individual substitutions tested in genotypes 2a, 4a, or 5a conferred a > 100-fold reduction in velpatasvir susceptibility. Combinations of these variants often showed greater reductions in susceptibility to velpatasvir than single RAVs alone.
In clinical studies: Studies in patients without cirrhosis and patients with compensated cirrhosis: In a pooled analysis of patients without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis who received Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets for 12 weeks in three Phase 3 studies, 12 patients (2 with genotype 1 and 10 with genotype 3) qualified for resistance analysis due to virologic failure. One additional patient with genotype 3 HCV infection at baseline was reinfected with genotype 1a HCV at virologic failure and was excluded from the virological analysis. No patients with genotype 2, 4, 5, or 6 HCV infection experienced virologic failure.
Of the 2 genotype 1 virologic failure patients, one patient had virus with emergent NS5A RAV Y93N and the other patient had virus with emergent NS5A RAVs L31I/V and Y93H at virologic failure. Both patients had virus at baseline harboring NS5A RAVs. No NS5B nucleoside inhibitor (NI) RAVs were observed at failure in the 2 patients.
Of the 10 genotype 3 virologic failure patients, Y93H was observed in all 10 patients at failure (6 had Y93H emerge post-treatment and 4 patients had Y93H at baseline and post-treatment). No NS5B NI RAVs were observed at failure in the 10 patients.
Studies in patients with decompensated cirrhosis: In one Phase 3 study in patients with decompensated cirrhosis who received Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets + RBV for 12 weeks, 3 patients (1 with genotype 1 and 2 with genotype 3) qualified for resistance analysis due to virologic failure. No patients with genotype 2 or 4 HCV infection in the Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets + RBV 12 weeks group experienced virologic failure.
The 1 virologic failure patient with genotype 1 HCV had no NS5A or NS5B RAVs at failure.
Of the 2 genotype 3 virologic failure patients, one had NS5A RAV Y93H emerge at failure. Another patient had virus with Y93H at baseline and virologic failure and also developed low levels (< 5%) of NS5B NI RAVs N142T and E237G at failure. Pharmacokinetic data from this patient was consistent with non-adherence to treatment.
In this study, 2 patients treated with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets for 12 or 24 weeks without ribavirin had emergent NS5B S282T at low levels (< 5%) along with L159F.
Effect of baseline HCV resistance-associated variants on treatment outcome: Studies in patients without cirrhosis and patients with compensated cirrhosis: Analyses were conducted to explore the association between pre-existing baseline NS5A RAVs and treatment outcome for patients without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis in three Phase 3 clinical studies (ASTRAL-1, ASTRAL-2 and ASTRAL-3). Of the 1,035 patients treated with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir in the three Phase 3 clinical studies, 1,023 patients were included in the analysis of NS5A RAVs; 7 patients were excluded as they neither achieved sustained virologic response (SVR12) nor had virologic failure and 5 additional patients were excluded as NS5A gene sequencing failed. In the pooled analysis of the Phase 3 studies, 380/1,023 (37%) patients' virus had baseline NS5A RAVs. Genotype 2, 4, and 6 HCV-infected patients had a higher prevalence of NS5A RAVs (70%, 63% and 52%, respectively) compared to genotype 1 (23%), genotype 3 (16%), and genotype 5 (18%) HCV-infected patients.
Baseline RAVs had no relevant impact on SVR12 rates in patients infected with genotype 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 HCV, as summarised in Table 3. Genotype 3 infected patients with the NS5A RAV Y93H at baseline had a lower SVR12 rate than patients without Y93H after treatment with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets for 12 weeks, as summarised in Table 4. In the ASTRAL-3 study, the Y93H RAV was detected at baseline in 9% of patients treated with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets. (See Tables 3 and 4.)

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The NS5B NI RAV S282T was not detected in the baseline NS5B sequence of any patient in Phase 3 studies. SVR12 was achieved in all 77 patients who had baseline NS5B NI RAVs including N142T, L159F, E/N237G, C/M289L/I, L320F/I/V, V321A/I, and S282G+V321I.
Studies in patients with decompensated cirrhosis (CPT Class B): Analyses were conducted to explore the association between pre-existing baseline NS5A RAVs and treatment outcome for patients with decompensated cirrhosis in one Phase 3 study (ASTRAL-4). Of the 87 patients treated with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets + RBV, 85 patients were included in the analysis of NS5A RAVs; 2 patients were excluded as they neither achieved SVR12 nor had virologic failure. Among the patients who received treatment with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets + RBV for 12 weeks, 29% (25/85) of patients had baseline virus with NS5A RAVs: 29% (19/66), 75% (3/4), 15% (2/13), and 50% (1/2) for patients with genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 HCV, respectively.
SVR12 in patients with or without baseline NS5A RAVs in the Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets + RBV 12 week group for this study is shown in Table 5. (See Table 5.)

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The single genotype 3 patient who had baseline NS5A RAVs and failed to achieve SVR12 had NS5A substitution Y93H at baseline; pharmacokinetic data from this patient was consistent with non-adherence to treatment.
Three patients in the Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets + RBV 12 week group had baseline NS5B NI RAVs (N142T and L159F) and all three patients achieved SVR12.
Cross-resistance: In vitro data suggests that the majority of NS5A RAVs that confer resistance to ledipasvir and daclatasvir remained susceptible to velpatasvir. Velpatasvir was fully active against the sofosbuvir resistance-associated substitution S282T in NS5B while all velpatasvir resistance-associated substitutions in NS5A were fully susceptible to sofosbuvir. Both sofosbuvir and velpatasvir were fully active against substitutions associated with resistance to other classes of direct acting antivirals with different mechanisms of actions, such as NS5B non-nucleoside inhibitors and NS3 protease inhibitors. The efficacy of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets has not been assessed in patients who have previously failed treatment with other regimens that include an NS5A inhibitor.
Clinical efficacy and safety: The efficacy of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets was evaluated in three Phase 3 studies in patients with genotype 1 to 6 HCV infection with or without compensated cirrhosis and one Phase 3 study in patients with genotype 1 to 6 HCV infection with decompensated cirrhosis, as summarised in Table 6. (See Table 6.)

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The ribavirin dose was weight-based (1,000 mg daily administered in two divided doses for patients < 75 kg and 1,200 mg for those ≥ 75 kg) and administered in two divided doses when used in combination with sofosbuvir in the ASTRAL-2 and ASTRAL-3 studies or in combination with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets in the ASTRAL-4 study. Ribavirin dose adjustments were performed according to the ribavirin prescribing information. Serum HCV RNA values were measured during the clinical studies using the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS Taqman HCV test (version 2.0) with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 15 IU/mL. Sustained virologic response (SVR12), defined as HCV RNA less than LLOQ at 12 weeks after the cessation of treatment, was the primary endpoint to determine the HCV cure rate.
Clinical studies in patients without cirrhosis and patients with compensated cirrhosis: Genotype 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 HCV-infected adults - ASTRAL-1 (study 1138): ASTRAL-1 was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study that evaluated 12 weeks of treatment with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets compared with 12 weeks of placebo in patients with genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6 HCV infection. Patients with genotype 1, 2, 4 or 6 HCV infection were randomised in a 5:1 ratio to treatment with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets for 12 weeks or placebo for 12 weeks. Patients with genotype 5 HCV infection were enrolled to the Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets group. Randomisation was stratified by HCV genotype (1, 2, 4, 6, and indeterminate) and the presence or absence of cirrhosis.
Demographics and baseline characteristics were balanced between the Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets and placebo group. Of the 740 treated patients, the median age was 56 years (range: 18 to 82); 60% of the patients were male; 79% were White, 9% were Black; 21% had a baseline body mass index of at least 30 kg/m2; the proportions of patients with genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6 HCV infection were 53%, 17%, 19%, 5% and 7%, respectively; 69% had non-CC IL28B alleles (CT or TT); 74% had baseline HCV RNA levels of at least 800,000 IU/mL; 19% had compensated cirrhosis; and 32% were treatment-experienced.
Table 7 presents the SVR12 for the ASTRAL-1 study by HCV genotypes. No patients in the placebo group achieved SVR12. (See Table 7.)

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Genotype 2 HCV-infected adults - ASTRAL-2 (study 1139): ASTRAL-2 was a randomised, open-label study that evaluated 12 weeks of treatment with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets compared with 12 weeks of treatment with SOF+RBV in patients with genotype 2 HCV infection. Patients were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to treatment with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets for 12 weeks or SOF+RBV for 12 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by the presence or absence of cirrhosis and prior treatment experience (treatment-naïve versus treatment-experienced).
Demographics and baseline characteristics were balanced across the two treatment groups. Of the 266 treated patients, the median age was 58 years (range: 23 to 81); 59% of the patients were male; 88% were White, 7% were Black; 33% had a baseline body mass index of at least 30 kg/m2; 62% had non-CC IL28B alleles (CT or TT); 80% had baseline HCV RNA levels of at least 800,000 IU/mL; 14% had compensated cirrhosis and 15% were treatment-experienced.
Table 8 presents the SVR12 for the ASTRAL-2 study. (See Table 8.)

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Treatment with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets for 12 weeks demonstrated the statistical superiority (p = 0.018) over treatment with SOF+RBV for 12 weeks (treatment difference +5.2%; 95% confidence interval: +0.2% to +10.3%).
Genotype 3 HCV-infected adults - ASTRAL-3 (study 1140): ASTRAL-3 was a randomised, open-label study that evaluated 12 weeks of treatment with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets compared with 24 weeks of treatment with SOF+RBV in patients with genotype 3 HCV infection. Patients were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to treatment with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets for 12 weeks or SOF+RBV for 24 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by the presence or absence of cirrhosis and prior treatment experience (treatment-naïve versus treatment-experienced).
Demographics and baseline characteristics were balanced across the two treatment groups. Of the 552 treated patients, the median age was 52 years (range: 19 to 76); 62% of the patients were male; 89% were White, 9% were Asian; 1% were Black; 20% had a baseline body mass index of at least 30 kg/m2; 61% had non-CC IL28B alleles (CT or TT); 70% had baseline HCV RNA levels of at least 800,000 IU/mL, 30% had compensated cirrhosis and 26% were treatment-experienced.
Table 9 presents the SVR12 for the ASTRAL-3 study. (See Table 9.)

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Treatment with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets for 12 weeks demonstrated the statistical superiority (p < 0.001) compared to treatment with SOF+RBV for 24 weeks (treatment difference +14.8%; 95% confidence interval: +9.6% to +20.0%).
SVR12 for selected subgroups are presented in Table 10. (See Table 10.)

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Clinical studies in patients with decompensated cirrhosis - ASTRAL-4 (study 1137): ASTRAL-4 was a randomised, open-label study in patients with genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 HCV infection and CPT Class B cirrhosis. Patients were randomised in a 1:1:1 ratio to treatment with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets for 12 weeks, Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets + RBV for 12 weeks or Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets for 24 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by HCV genotype (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and indeterminate).
Demographics and baseline characteristics were balanced across the treatment groups. Of the 267 treated patients, the median age was 59 years (range: 40 to 73); 70% of the patients were male; 90% were White, 6% were Black; 42% had a baseline body mass index of at least 30 kg/m2. The proportions of patients with genotype 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 HCV were 78%, 4%, 15%, 3%, and < 1% (1 patient), respectively. No patients with genotype 5 HCV infection were enrolled. 76% of the patients had non-CC IL28B alleles (CT or TT); 56% had baseline HCV RNA levels of at least 800,000 IU/mL, 55% were treatment-experienced; 90% and 95% of patients had CPT Class B cirrhosis and Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score ≤ 15 at baseline, respectively.
Table 11 presents the SVR12 for the ASTRAL-4 study by HCV genotype. (See Table 11.)

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Table 12 presents the virologic outcome for patients with genotype 1 or 3 HCV infection in the ASTRAL-4 study.
No patients with genotype 2, 4 or 6 HCV infection experienced virologic failure. (See Table 12.)

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Changes in the parameters found in the CPT score system in patients achieving SVR12 in ASTRAL-4 (all 3 regimens) are shown in Table 13. (See Table 13.)

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Baseline frequency of encephalopathy was: 38% none, 62 % grade 1-2.
Paediatric population: The European Medicines Agency has deferred the obligation to submit the results of studies with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets in one or more subsets of the paediatric population in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (see Dosage & Administration for information on paediatric use).
Elderly: Clinical studies of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets included 156 patients aged 65 and over (12% of total number of patients in the Phase 3 clinical studies). The response rates observed for patients ≥ 65 years of age were similar to that of patients < 65 years of age, across treatment groups.
Pharmacokinetics: Absoprtion: The pharmacokinetic properties of sofosbuvir, GS-331007 and velpatasvir have been evaluated in healthy adult subjects and in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Following oral administration of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets, sofosbuvir was absorbed quickly and the peak median plasma concentration was observed 1 hour post-dose. Median peak plasma concentration of GS-331007 was observed 3 hours post-dose. Velpatasvir median peak concentrations were observed at 3 hours post-dose.
Based on the population pharmacokinetic analysis in HCV-infected patients, mean steady-state AUC0-24 for sofosbuvir (n = 982), GS-331007 (n = 1,428) and velpatasvir (n = 1,425) were 1,260, 13,970 and 2,970 ng·h/mL, respectively. Steady-state Cmax for sofosbuvir, GS-331007 and velpatasvir were 566, 868 and 259 ng/mL, respectively. Sofosbuvir and GS-331007 AUC0-24 and Cmax were similar in healthy adult subjects and patients with HCV infection. Relative to healthy subjects (n = 331), velpatasvir AUC0-24 and Cmax were 37% lower and 41% lower, respectively in HCV-infected patients.
Effects of food: Relative to fasting conditions, the administration of a single dose of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets with a moderate fat (~600 kcal, 30% fat) or high fat (~800 kcal, 50% fat) meal resulted in a 34% and 21% increase in velpatasvir AUC0-inf, respectively, and a 31% and 5% increase in velpatasvir Cmax, respectively. The moderate or high fat meal increased sofosbuvir AUC0-inf by 60% and 78%, respectively, but did not substantially affect the sofosbuvir Cmax. The moderate or high fat meal did not alter GS-331007 AUC0-inf, but resulted in a 25% and 37% decrease in its Cmax, respectively. The response rates in Phase 3 studies were similar in HCV-infected patients who received Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets with food or without food. Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets can be administered without regard to food.
Distribution: Sofosbuvir is approximately 61-65% bound to human plasma proteins and the binding is independent of drug concentration over the range of 1 μg/mL to 20 μg/mL. Protein binding of GS-331007 was minimal in human plasma. After a single 400 mg dose of [14C]-sofosbuvir in healthy subjects, the blood to plasma ratio of [14C]-radioactivity was approximately 0.7.
Velpatasvir is > 99.5% bound to human plasma proteins and binding is independent of drug concentration over the range of 0.09 μg/mL to 1.8 μg/mL. After a single 100 mg dose of [14C]-velpatasvir in healthy subjects, the blood to plasma ratio of [14C]-radioactivity ranged between 0.52 and 0.67.
Biotransformation: Sofosbuvir is extensively metabolised in the liver to form the pharmacologically active nucleoside analog triphosphate GS-461203. The metabolic activation pathway involves sequential hydrolysis of the carboxyl ester moiety catalysed by human cathepsin A (CatA) or carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) and phosphoramidate cleavage by histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) followed by phosphorylation by the pyrimidine nucleotide biosysthesis pathway. Dephosphorylation results in the formation of nucleoside metabolite GS-331007 that cannot be efficiently rephosphorylated and lacks anti-HCV activity in vitro. Sofosbuvir and GS-331007 are not substrates or inhibitors of UGT1A1 or CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 enzymes. After a single 400 mg oral dose of [14C]-sofosbuvir, GS-331007 accounted for approximately > 90% of total systemic exposure.
Velpatasvir is a substrate of CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP3A4 with slow turnover. Following a single dose of 100 mg [14C]-velpatasvir, the majority (> 98%) of radioactivity in plasma was parent drug. The monohydroxylated and desmethylated velpatasvir were the metabolites identified in human plasma. Unchanged velpatasvir is the major species present in faeces.
Elimination: Following a single 400 mg oral dose of [14C]-sofosbuvir, mean total recovery of the [14C]-radioactivity was greater than 92%, consisting of approximately 80%, 14%, and 2.5% recovered in urine, faeces, and expired air, respectively. The majority of the sofosbuvir dose recovered in urine was GS-331007 (78%) while 3.5% was recovered as sofosbuvir. These data indicate that renal clearance is the major elimination pathway for GS-331007. The median terminal half-lives of sofosbuvir and GS-331007 following administration of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets were 0.5 and 25 hours, respectively.
Following a single 100 mg oral dose of [14C]-velpatasvir, mean total recovery of the [14C]-radioactivity was 95%, consisting of approximately 94% and 0.4% recovered from the faeces and urine, respectively. Unchanged velpatasvir was the major species in faeces accounting for a mean of 77% of the administered dose, followed by monohydroxylated velpatasvir (5.9%) and desmethylated velpatasvir (3.0%). These data indicate that biliary excretion of parent drug was a major route of elimination for velpatasvir. The median terminal half-life of velpatasvir following administration of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets was approximately 15 hours.
Linearity/non-linearity: Velpatasvir AUC increases in a nearly dose proportional manner over the dose range of 25 mg to 150 mg. Sofosbuvir and GS-331007 AUCs are near dose-proportional over the dose range of 200 mg to 1,200 mg.
In vitro potential for sofosbuvir/velpatasvir drug-drug interactions: Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir are substrates of drug transporters P-gp and BCRP while GS-331007 is not. Velpatasvir is also a substrate of OATP1B. In vitro, slow metabolic turnover of velpatasvir by CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP3A4 was observed.
Velpatasvir is an inhibitor of drug transporter P-gp, BCRP, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and its involvement in drug interactions with these transporters is primarily limited to the process of absorption. At clinically relevant plasma concentration, velpatasvir is not an inhibitor of hepatic transporters bile salt export pump (BSEP), sodium taurocholate cotransporter protein (NTCP), OATP2B1, OATP1A2 or organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, renal transporters OCT2, OAT1, OAT3, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) or multidrug and toxin extrusion protein (MATE) 1, or CYP or uridine glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 enzymes. Sofosbuvir and GS-331007 are not inhibitors of drug transporters P-gp, BCRP, MRP2, BSEP, OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and OCT1. GS-331007 is not an inhibitor of OAT1, OCT2, and MATE1.
Pharmacokinetics in special populations: Race and gender: No clinically relevant pharmacokinetic differences due to race or gender have been identified for sofosbuvir, GS-331007 or velpatasvir.
Elderly: Population pharmacokinetic analysis in HCV-infected patients showed that within the age range (18 to 82 years) analysed, age did not have a clinically relevant effect on the exposure to sofosbuvir, GS-331007, or velpatasvir.
Renal impairment: The pharmacokinetics of sofosbuvir was studied in HCV negative patients with mild (eGFR ≥ 50 and < 80 mL/min/1.73 m2), moderate (eGFR ≥ 30 and < 50 mL/min/1.73 m2), severe renal impairment (eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) and patients with ESRD requiring haemodialysis following a single 400 mg dose of sofosbuvir. Relative to patients with normal renal function (eGFR > 80 mL/min/1.73 m2), the sofosbuvir AUC0-inf was 61%, 107% and 171% higher in mild, moderate and severe renal impairment, while the GS-331007 AUC0-inf was 55%, 88% and 451% higher, respectively. In patients with ESRD, sofosbuvir AUC0-inf was 28% higher when sofosbuvir was dosed 1 hour before haemodialysis compared with 60% higher when dosed 1 hour after haemodialysis, respectively. The AUC0-inf of GS-331007 in patients with ESRD administered with sofosbuvir 1 hour before or 1 hour after haemodialysis was at least 10-fold and 20-fold higher, respectively. GS-331007 is efficiently removed by haemodialysis with an extraction coefficient of approximately 53%. Following a single 400 mg dose of sofosbuvir, a 4 hour haemodialysis removed 18% of administered dose (see Dosage & Administration).
The pharmacokinetics of velpatasvir was studied with a single dose of 100 mg velpatasvir in HCV negative patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR < 30 mL/min by Cockcroft-Gault). Relative to subjects with normal renal function, velpatasvir AUCinf was 50% higher in subjects with severe renal impairment (see Dosage & Administration).
Hepatic impairment: The pharmacokinetics of sofosbuvir was studied following 7-day dosing of 400 mg sofosbuvir in HCV-infected patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment (CPT Class B and C). Relative to patients with normal hepatic function, the sofosbuvir AUC0-24 was 126% and 143% higher in moderate and severe hepatic impairment, while the GS-331007 AUC0-24 was 18% and 9% higher, respectively. Population pharmacokinetics analysis in HCV-infected patients indicated that cirrhosis (including decompensated cirrhosis) had no clinically relevant effect on the exposure to sofosbuvir and GS-331007.
The pharmacokinetics of velpatasvir was studied with a single dose of 100 mg velpatasvir in HCV negative patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment (CPT Class B and C). Compared to subjects with normal hepatic function velpatasvir total plasma exposure (AUCinf) was similar in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment. Population pharmacokinetics analysis in HCV-infected patients indicated that cirrhosis (including decompensated cirrhosis) had no clinically relevant effect on the exposure to velpatasvir (see Dosage & Administration).
Body weight: Body weight did not have a clinically significant effect on sofosbuvir or velpatasvir exposure according to a population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Paediatric population: The pharmacokinetics of sofosbuvir, GS-331007 and velpatasvir in paediatric patients have not been established (see Dosage & Administration).
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Sofosbuvir: Exposure to sofosbuvir in rodent studies could not be detected likely due to high esterase activity and exposure to the major metabolite GS-331007 was instead used to estimate exposure margins.
Sofosbuvir was not genotoxic in a battery of in vitro or in vivo assays, including bacterial mutagenicity, chromosome aberration using human peripheral blood lymphocytes and in vivo mouse micronucleus assays. No teratogenic effects were observed in the rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies with sofosbuvir. Sofosbuvir had no adverse effects on behaviour, reproduction, or development of the offspring in the rat pre- and post-natal development study.
Sofosbuvir was not a carcinogen in the 2-year mouse and rat carcinogenicity studies at GS-331007 exposures up to 15 and 9 times, respectively, higher than human exposure.
Velpatasvir: Velpatasvir was not genotoxic in a battery of in vitro or in vivo assays, including bacterial mutagenicity, chromosome aberration using human peripheral blood lymphocytes and in vivo rat micronucleus assays.
Carcinogenicity studies with velpatasvir are ongoing.
Velpatasvir had no adverse effects on mating and fertility. No teratogenic effects were observed in the mouse and rat developmental toxicity studies with velpatasvir at AUC exposures approximately 31- and 6-fold higher, respectively, than the human exposure at the recommended clinical dose. However, a possible teratogenic effect was indicated in rabbits where an increase in total visceral malformations was seen in exposed animals at AUC exposures up to 0.7 fold the human exposure at recommended clinical dose. The human relevance of this finding is not known. Velpatasvir had no adverse effects on behaviour, reproduction, or development of the offspring in the rat pre- and post-natal development study at AUC exposures approximately 5-fold higher than the human exposure at the recommended clinical dose.
Indications/Uses
Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets are indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adults (see Dosage & Administration, Precautions and Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
Dosage/Direction for Use
Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets treatment should be initiated and monitored by a physician experienced in the management of patients with HCV infection.
Posology: The recommended dose of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets is one tablet, taken orally, once daily with or without food (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). (See Table 14.)

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When used in combination with ribavirin, refer also to the Prescribing information of the medicinal product containing ribavirin.
The following dosing is recommended where ribavirin is divided in two daily doses and given with food: See Table 15.

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If ribavirin is used in genotype 3 infected patients with compensated cirrhosis (pre- or post-transplant) the recommended dose of ribavirin is 1,000/1,200 mg (1,000 mg for patients weighing < 75 kg and 1,200 mg for patients weighing ≥ 75 kg).
For ribavirin dose modifications, refer to the prescribing information of the medicinal product containing ribavirin.
Patients should be instructed that if vomiting occurs within 3 hours of dosing an additional tablet of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets should be taken. If vomiting occurs more than 3 hours after dosing, no further dose of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets is needed (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
If a dose of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets is missed and it is within 18 hours of the normal time, patients should be instructed to take the tablet as soon as possible and then patients should take the next dose at the usual time. If it is after 18 hours then patients should be instructed to wait and take the next dose of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets at the usual time. Patients should be instructed not to take a double dose of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets.
Patients who have previously failed therapy with an NS5A-containing regimen: Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets + ribavirin for 24 weeks may be considered (see Precautions).
Elderly: No dose adjustment is warranted for elderly patients (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Renal impairment: No dose adjustment of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets is required for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. The safety and efficacy of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets has not been assessed in patients with severe renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) or end stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring haemodialysis (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Hepatic impairment: No dose adjustment of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets is required for patients with mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment (CPT Class A, B, or C) (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). Safety and efficacy of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets have been assessed in patients with CPT Class B cirrhosis, but not in patients with CPT Class C cirrhosis (see Precautions, Adverse Reactions and Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
Paediatric population: The safety and efficacy of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets in children and adolescents aged less than 18 years have not yet been established. No data are available.
Method of administration: For oral use.
Patients should be instructed to swallow the tablet whole with or without food (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). Due to the bitter taste, it is recommended that the film-coated tablet is not chewed or crushed.
Overdosage
The highest documented doses of sofosbuvir and velpatasvir were a single dose of 1,200 mg and a single dose of 500 mg, respectively. In these healthy volunteer studies, there were no untoward effects observed at these dose levels, and adverse events were similar in frequency and severity to those reported in the placebo groups. The effects of higher doses/exposures are not known.
No specific antidote is available for overdose with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets. If overdose occurs the patient must be monitored for evidence of toxicity. Treatment of overdose with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets consists of general supportive measures including monitoring of vital signs, as well as observation of the clinical status of the patient. Haemodialysis can efficiently remove the predominant circulating metabolite of sofosbuvir, GS-331007, with an extraction ratio of 53%. Haemodialysis is unlikely to result in significant removal of velpatasvir, since velpatasvir is highly bound to plasma protein.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substances or to any of the excipients listed in Description.
Use with potent P-gp and potent CYP inducers: Medicinal products that are potent P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or potent cytochrome P450 (CYP) inducers (rifampicin, rifabutin, St. John's wort [Hypericum perforatum], carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin). Co-administration will significantly decrease sofosbuvir or velpatasvir plasma concentrations and could result in loss of efficacy of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets (see Interactions).
Special Precautions
Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets should not be administered concurrently with other medicinal products containing sofosbuvir.
Severe bradycardia and heart block: Cases of severe bradycardia and heart block have been observed when sofosbuvir used in combination with another direct acting antiviral (DAA), is used with concomitant amiodarone with or without other medicinal products that lower heart rate. The mechanism is not established.
The concomitant use of amiodarone was limited through the clinical development of sofosbuvir plus DAAs. Cases are potentially life threatening, therefore amiodarone should only be used in patients on Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets when other alternative anti-arrhythmic treatments are not tolerated or are contraindicated.
Should concomitant use of amiodarone be considered necessary, it is recommended that patients are closely monitored when initiating Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets. Patients who are identified as being at high risk of bradyarrhythmia should be continuously monitored for 48 hours in an appropriate clinical setting.
Due to the long half-life of amiodarone, appropriate monitoring should also be carried out for patients who have discontinued amiodarone within the past few months and are to be initiated on Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets.
All patients receiving Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets in combination with amiodarone with or without other medicinal products that lower heart rate should also be warned of the symptoms of bradycardia and heart block and should be advised to seek medical advice urgently should they experience them.
Patients who have previously failed therapy with an NS5A-containing regimen: There are no clinical data to support the efficacy of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for the treatment of patients who have failed treatment with a regimen containing another NS5A inhibitor. However, on the basis of NS5A resistance associated variants (RAVs) typically seen in patients who have failed therapy with other NS5A inhibitor containing regimens, the in vitro pharmacology of velpatasvir, and the outcomes of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir treatment in NS5A-naïve patients with baseline NS5A RAVs enrolled into the ASTRAL-studies, treatment with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets + RBV for 24 weeks can be considered for patients who have failed therapy on an NS5A-containing regimen and who are deemed at high risk for clinical disease progression and who do not have alternative treatment options.
Renal impairment: No dose adjustment of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets is required for patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. The safety of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets has not been assessed in patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) or ESRD requiring haemodialysis. When Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets are used in combination with ribavirin refer also to the prescribing information for ribavirin for patients with creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Use with moderate P-gp inducers or moderate CYP inducers: Medicinal products that are moderate P-gp or moderate CYP inducers (e.g. oxcarbazepine, modafinil or efavirenz) may decrease sofosbuvir or velpatasvir plasma concentrations leading to reduced therapeutic effect of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets. Co-administration of such medicinal products with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets is not recommended (see Interactions).
Use with certain HIV antiretroviral regimens: Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets have been shown to increase tenofovir exposure, especially when used together with an HIV regimen containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and a pharmacokinetic enhancer (ritonavir or cobicistat). The safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in the setting of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets and a pharmacokinetic enhancer has not been established. The potential risks and benefits associated with co-administration of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets with the fixed-dose combination tablet containing elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate given in conjunction with a boosted HIV protease inhibitor (e.g. atazanavir or darunavir) should be considered, particularly in patients at increased risk of renal dysfunction. Patients receiving Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets concomitantly with elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and a boosted HIV protease inhibitor should be monitored for tenofovir-associated adverse reactions. Refer to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, or elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate prescribing information for recommendations on renal monitoring.
HCV/HBV (hepatitis B virus) co-infection: There are no data on the use of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets in patients with HCV/HBV co-infection. Clearance of HCV may lead to increased replication of HBV in patients who are HCV/HBV co-infected. HBV levels should be monitored during treatment with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets, and during post-treatment follow-up.
CPT Class C cirrhosis: Safety and efficacy of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets has not been assessed in patients with CPT Class C cirrhosis (see Adverse Reactions and Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
Liver transplant patients: The safety and efficacy of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets in the treatment of HCV infection in patients who are post-liver transplant have not been assessed. Treatment with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets in accordance with the recommended posology (see Dosage & Administration) should be guided by an assessment of the potential benefits and risks for the individual patient. (See Table 16.)

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Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: There are no or limited amount of data (less than 300 pregnancy outcomes) from the use of sofosbuvir, velpatasvir or Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets in pregnant women.
Sofosbuvir: Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to reproductive toxicity (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions).
It has not been possible to fully estimate exposure margins achieved for sofosbuvir in the rat relative to the exposure in humans at the recommended clinical dose (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions).
Velpatasvir: Animal studies have shown a possible link to reproductive toxicity (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions).
As a precautionary measure, Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets use are not recommended during pregnancy.
Breast-feeding: It is unknown whether sofosbuvir, metabolites of sofosbuvir or velpatasvir are excreted in human milk.
Available pharmacokinetic data in animals have shown excretion of velpatasvir and metabolites of sofosbuvir in milk.
A risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded. Therefore, Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets should not be used during breast-feeding.
Fertility: No human data on the effect of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets on fertility are available. Animal studies do not indicate harmful effects of sofosbuvir or velpatasvir on fertility.
If ribavirin is co-administered with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets, refer to the Prescribing information for ribavirin for detailed recommendations regarding pregnancy, contraception, and breast-feeding.
Adverse Reactions
Summary of the safety profile: The safety assessment of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets was based on pooled Phase 3 clinical study data from patients with genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 HCV infection (with or without compensated cirrhosis) including 1,035 patients who received Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets for 12 weeks.
The proportion of patients who permanently discontinued treatment due to adverse events was 0.2% and the proportion of patients who experienced any severe adverse events was 3.2% for patients receiving Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets for 12 weeks. In clinical studies, headache, fatigue and nausea were the most common (incidence ≥ 10%) treatment emergent adverse events reported in patients treated with 12 weeks of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets. These and other adverse events were reported at a similar frequency in placebo treated patients compared with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets treated patients.
Patients with decompensated cirrhosis: The safety profile of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets has been evaluated in one open-label study in which patients with CPT Class B cirrhosis received Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets for 12 weeks (n = 90), Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets + RBV for 12 weeks (n = 87) or Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets for 24 weeks (n = 90). The adverse events observed were consistent with expected clinical sequelae of decompensated liver disease, or the known toxicity profile of ribavirin for patients receiving Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets in combination with ribavirin.
Among the 87 patients who were treated with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets + RBV for 12 weeks, decreases in haemoglobin to less than 10 g/dL and 8.5 g/dL during treatment were experienced by 23% and 7% patients, respectively. Ribavirin was discontinued in 15% of patients treated with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets + RBV for 12 weeks due to adverse events.
Description of selected adverse reactions: Cardiac arrhythmias: Cases of severe bradycardia and heart block have been observed when sofosbuvir used in combination with another direct acting antiviral, is used with concomitant amiodarone and/or other medicinal products that lower heart rate (see Precautions and Interactions).
Drug Interactions
As Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets contains sofosbuvir and velpatasvir, any interactions that have been identified with these active substances individually may occur with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets.
Potential for Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets to affect other medicinal products: Velpatasvir is an inhibitor of drug transporter P-gp, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and OATP1B3. Co-administration of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets with medicinal products that are substrates of these transporters may increase the exposure of such medicinal products. See Table 17 for examples of interactions with sensitive substrates of P-gp (digoxin), BCRP (rosuvastatin), and OATP (pravastatin).
Potential for other medicinal products to affect Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets: Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir are substrates of drug transporters P-gp and BCRP. Velpatasvir is also a substrate of drug transporter OATP1B. In vitro, slow metabolic turnover of velpatasvir by CYP2B6, CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 was observed. Medicinal products that are potent inducers of P-gp or potent inducers of CYP2B6, CYP2C8, or CYP3A4 (e.g. rifampicin, rifabutin, St. John's wort, carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin) may decrease plasma concentrations of sofosbuvir or velpatasvir leading to reduced therapeutic effect of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir. The use of such medicinal products with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets is contraindicated (see Contraindications). Medicinal products that are moderate P-gp inducers or moderate CYP inducers (e.g. oxcarbazepine, modafinil or efavirenz) may decrease sofosbuvir or velpatasvir plasma concentration leading to reduced therapeutic effect of Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets. Co-administration with such medicinal products is not recommended with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets (see Precautions). Co-administration with medicinal products that inhibit P-gp or BCRP may increase sofosbuvir or velpatasvir plasma concentrations. Medicinal products that inhibit OATP, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, or CYP3A4 may increase plasma concentration of velpatasvir. Clinically significant medicinal product interactions with Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets mediated by P-gp, BCRP, OATP, or CYP450 inhibitors are not expected; Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets may be co-administered with P-gp, BCRP, OATP and CYP inhibitors.
Interactions between Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir tablets and other medicinal products: Table 17 provides a listing of established or potentially clinically significant medicinal product interactions (where 90% confidence interval [CI] of the geometric least-squares mean [GLSM] ratio were within "↔", extended above "↑", or extended below "↓" the predetermined interaction boundaries). The medicinal product interactions described are based on studies conducted with either sofosbuvir/velpatasvir or Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir as individual agents, or are predicted medicinal product interactions that may occur with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir. The table is not all-inclusive. (See Tables 17a, 17b and 17c.)

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Caution For Usage
Special precautions for disposal and other handling: Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Incompatibilities:
Not applicable.
Storage
Store at temperatures not exceeding 30°C.
Shelf life:
24 Months.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
J05AP55 - sofosbuvir and velpatasvir ; Belongs to the class of antivirals for treatment of HCV infections. Used in the treatment of hepatitis C viral infections.
Presentation/Packing
FC tab (blue colored, oval shaped, debossed with 'S' on one side and 'V' on other side) 28's.
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