Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR

Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR

tofacitinib

Manufacturer:

Pfizer

Distributor:

Zuellig
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Tofacitinib citrate.
Description
Xeljanz: Each 5 mg film-coated tablet contains 8.078 mg of tofacitinib citrate equivalent to 5 mg of tofacitinib free base active pharmaceutical ingredient.
Excipients with known effect: Each 5 mg tablet also contains 62.567 mg lactose monohydrate.
Xeljanz XR: Each 11 mg modified release film-coated tablet contains 17.77 mg tofacitinib citrate equivalent to 11 mg of tofacitinib free base active pharmaceutical ingredient.
Excipients with known effect: Each 11 mg tablet contains 152.229 mg sorbitol.
Tofacitinib citrate (CP-690,550-10) has a molecular weight of 504.5 Daltons, or 312.4 Daltons, for tofacitinib free base (CP-690,550). The molecular formula of tofacitinib citrate is C16H20N6O•C6H8O7.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Excipients that may cause hypersensitivity.
Colored Film coat for 5 mg tablets: Opadry II White (33G28523) containing: HPMC 2910/Hypromellose 6cP, titanium dioxide, lactose monohydrate, macrogol/PEG3350, triacetin (glycerol triacetate).
Film coat for 11 mg modified-release tablets: Cellulose acetate, Hydroxypropyl cellulose, HPMC 2910/hypromellose, Titanium Dioxide, Triacetin, Red Iron Oxide.
Action
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of Action: Tofacitinib is a potent, selective inhibitor of the JAK family of kinases with a high degree of selectivity against other kinases in the human genome. In kinase assays, tofacitinib inhibits JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and to a lesser extent TyK2. In cellular settings where JAK kinases signal in pairs, tofacitinib preferentially inhibits signaling by heterodimeric receptors associated with JAK3 and/or JAK1 with functional selectivity over receptors that signal via pairs of JAK2. Inhibition of JAK1 and JAK3 by tofacitinib blocks signaling through the common gamma chain-containing receptors for several cytokines, including IL-2, -4, -7, -9, -15, and -21. These cytokines are integral to lymphocyte activation, proliferation, and function and inhibition of their signaling may thus result in modulation of multiple aspects of the immune response. In addition, inhibition of JAK1 will result in attenuation of signaling by additional pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and Type I interferons. At higher exposures, inhibition of erythropoietin signaling could occur via inhibition of JAK2 signaling.
Pharmacodynamic Effect: In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, treatment up to 6 months with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) was associated with dose-dependent reductions of circulating CD16/56+ natural killer (NK) cells, with estimated maximum reductions occurring at approximately 8-10 weeks after initiation of therapy. These changes generally resolved within 2-6 weeks after discontinuation of treatment. Treatment with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) was associated with dose-dependent increases in B cell counts. Changes in circulating T-lymphocyte counts and T-lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+) were small and inconsistent.
Following long-term treatment (median duration of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) treatment of approximately 5 years), CD4+ and CD8+ counts showed median reductions of 28% and 27%, respectively, from baseline. In contrast to the observed decrease after short-term dosing, CD16/56+ natural killer cell counts showed a median increase of 73% from baseline. CD19+ B cell counts showed no further increases after long-term Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) treatment. These changes returned toward baseline after temporary discontinuation of treatment. There was no evidence of an increased risk of serious or opportunistic infections or herpes zoster at low values of CD4+, CD8+ or NK cell counts or high B cell counts.
Changes in total serum IgG, IgM, and IgA levels over 6-month Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) dosing in patients with rheumatoid arthritis were small, not dose-dependent and similar to those seen on placebo.
After treatment with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, rapid decreases in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were observed and maintained throughout dosing. Changes in CRP observed with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) treatment do not reverse fully within 2 weeks after discontinuation, indicating a longer duration of pharmacodynamic activity compared to the half-life.
Clinical Efficacy: Rheumatoid Arthritis: Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR) 11 mg once daily has demonstrated pharmacokinetic equivalence (AUC and Cmax) to Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg twice daily. The recommended dose of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR) is 11 mg once daily. All information provided in this section is applicable to Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR).
The efficacy and safety of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) were assessed in six randomized, double-blind, controlled multicenter studies in patients >18 years with active rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Patients had at least 6 tender and 6 swollen joints at randomization (4 swollen and tender joints for Study II). Tofacitinib (Xeljanz), 5 or 10 mg twice daily, was given as monotherapy (Study I) and in combination with DMARDs (Study II) in patients with an inadequate response to those drugs, and in combination with MTX in patients with either an inadequate response to MTX (Studies III and Study IV) or inadequate efficacy or lack of tolerance to at least one approved TNF-inhibiting biologic agent (Study V).
Study I was a 6-month monotherapy study in which 610 patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to a DMARD (non-biologic or biologic) received Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 or 10 mg twice daily or placebo. At the Month 3 visit, all patients randomized to placebo treatment were advanced in a blinded fashion to a second predetermined treatment of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 or 10 mg twice daily. The primary endpoints at Month 3 were the proportion of patients who achieved an ACR20 response, changes in Health Assessment Questionnaire - Disability Index (HAQ-DI), and rates of Disease Activity Score DAS28-4 (ESR) <2.6.
Study II was a 12-month study in which 792 patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to a non-biologic DMARD received Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 or 10 mg twice daily or placebo added to background DMARD treatment (excluding potent immunosuppressive treatments such as azathioprine or cyclosporine). At the Month 3 visit, non-responding patients randomized to placebo treatment were advanced in a blinded fashion to a second predetermined treatment of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 or 10 mg twice daily. At the end of Month 6, all placebo patients were advanced to their second predetermined treatment in a blinded fashion. The primary endpoints were the proportion of patients who achieved an ACR20 response at Month 6, changes in HAQ-DI at Month 3 and rates of DAS28-4(ESR) <2.6 at Month 6.
Study III was a 12-month study in which 717 patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to MTX. Patients received Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 or 10 mg twice daily, adalimumab 40 mg subcutaneously every other week, or placebo added to background MTX. Placebo patients were advanced as in Study II. The primary endpoints were the proportion of patients who achieved an ACR20 response at Month 6, HAQ-DI at Month 3, and DAS28-4(ESR) <2.6 at Month 6.
Study IV was a 2-year study with a planned analysis at 1 year in which 797 patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to MTX received Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 or 10 mg twice daily or placebo added to background MTX. Placebo patients were advanced as in Study II. The primary endpoints were the proportion of patients who achieved an ACR20 response at Month 6, mean change from baseline in van der Heijde-modified total Sharp Score (mTSS) at Month 6, HAQ-DI at Month 3, and DAS28-4(ESR) <2.6 at Month 6.
Study V was a 6-month study in which 399 patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to at least one approved TNF-inhibiting biologic agent received Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 or 10 mg twice daily or placebo added to background MTX. At the Month 3 visit, all patients randomized to placebo treatment were advanced in a blinded fashion to a second predetermined treatment of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 or 10 mg twice daily. The primary endpoints at Month 3 were the proportion of patients who achieved an ACR20 response, HAQ-DI, and DAS28-4(ESR) <2.6.
Study VI was a 2-year monotherapy study with a planned analysis at 1 year in which 952 MTX-naive patients with moderate to severe active rheumatoid arthritis received Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 or 10 mg twice daily or MTX dose-titrated over 8 weeks from 10 to 20 mg weekly. The primary endpoints were mean change from baseline in van der Heijde mTSS at Month 6 and the proportion of patients who achieved an ACR70 response at Month 6.
Clinical Response: ACR response: The percentages of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz)-treated patients achieving ACR20, ACR50 and ACR70 responses in Studies I, II, IV, V and VI are shown in Table 1. In all studies, patients treated with either 5 or 10 mg twice daily Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) had statistically significant ACR20, ACR50 and ACR70 response rates at Month 3 and Month 6 vs. placebo (or vs. MTX in Study VI) treated patients.
In Study IV, ACR20/50/70 response rates at Month 12 were maintained through Month 24.
In Study VI (Table 1), the difference from MTX in both tofacitinib groups, in achieving ACR20, ACR50 and ACR70 response rates was statistically significant at all timepoints (p ≤0.0001). Tofacitinib, administered as monotherapy in MTX-naive patients, significantly improved RA signs and symptoms in comparison to MTX. Efficacy observed with tofacitinib was sustained through Month 24.
In Studies I, II, and V, improvement in ACR20 response rate vs. placebo was observed within 2 weeks.
During the 3 month (Studies I and V) and 6 month (Studies II, III, and IV) controlled portions of the studies, patients treated with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) at a dose of 10 mg twice daily generally had higher response rates compared to patients treated with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg twice daily. In Study III, the primary endpoints were the proportion achieving an ACR20 response at Month 6; change in HAQ-DI at Month 3, and DAS28-4(ESR) <2.6 at Month 6. The data for these primary outcomes were 51.5, 52.6, 47.2 and 28.3%; -0.55, -0.61, -0.49 and -0.24; and 6.2%, 12.5%, 6.7% and 1.1% for the 5 mg twice daily Tofacitinib (Xeljanz), 10 mg twice daily Tofacitinib (Xeljanz), adalimumab 40 mg subcutaneously every other week and placebo groups, respectively. For a pre-specified secondary endpoint, the ACR70 response rates at Month 6 for the 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg twice daily Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) groups were significantly greater than adalimumab 19.9%, 21.9% and 9.1%, respectively.
The treatment effect was similar in patients independent of rheumatoid factor status, age, gender, race, or disease status. Time to onset was rapid (as early as Week 2 in Studies I, II and V) and the magnitude of response continued to improve with duration of treatment. As with the overall ACR response in patients treated with 5 mg or 10 mg twice daily Tofacitinib (Xeljanz), each of the components of the ACR response was consistently improved from baseline including: tender and swollen joint counts; patient and physician global assessment; disability index scores; pain assessment and CRP compared to patients receiving placebo plus MTX or other DMARDs in all studies.
DAS28-4 (ESR) response: Patients in the Phase 3 studies had a mean Disease Activity Score (DAS28-4[ESR]) of 6.1-6.7 at baseline. Significant reductions in DAS28-4(ESR) from baseline (mean improvement) of 1.8-2.0 and 1.9-2.2 were observed in 5 mg and 10 mg Tofacitinib (Xeljanz)-treated patients, respectively, compared to placebo-treated patients (0.7-1.1) at 3 Months. The proportion of patients achieving a DAS28 clinical remission (DAS28-4(ESR) <2.6) in Studies II, III and IV was significantly higher in patients receiving 5 mg or 10 mg tofacitinib (6%-9% and 13%-16%, respectively) compared to 1%-3% of placebo patients at 6 months. In Study III, the percentages of patients achieving DAS28-4(ESR) <2.6 observed for Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg twice daily, 10 mg twice daily, and adalimumab at Month 6 were 6.2%, 12.5%, and 6.7%, respectively.
In a pooled analysis of the Phase 3 studies, the 10 mg twice daily dose provided increased benefit over the 5 mg twice daily dose in multiple measures of signs and symptoms: improvement from baseline (ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 response rates), and achievement of targeted disease activity state (either DAS28-4(ESR) <2.6 or ≤3.2). Greater benefits of 10 mg versus 5 mg were shown in the more stringent measures (i.e., ACR70 and DAS28-4 (ESR) <2.6 response rates). (See Table 1.)

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The results of the proportion of patients with an ACR Response for Studies I, II, IV, V and VI are shown in Table 1. Similar results were observed in Study III.
The results of the components of the ACR response criteria for Studies IV and V are shown in Table 2. Similar results were observed in Studies I, II and III. (See Table 2.)

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The percent of ACR20 responders by visit for Study IV is shown in Figure 1. Similar responses were observed in Studies I, II, III and V. (See Figure 1.)

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Radiographic Response: Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) on structural joint damage. In Study IV and Study VI, inhibition of progression of structural joint damage was assessed radiographically and expressed as mean change from baseline in mTSS and its components, the erosion score and joint space narrowing (JSN) score, at Months 6 and 12. The proportion of patients with no radiographic progression (mTSS change less than or equal to 0.5) was also assessed.
In Study IV, Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 10 mg twice daily plus background MTX resulted in significantly greater inhibition of the progression of structural damage compared to placebo plus MTX at Months 6 and 12. When given at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) plus MTX exhibited similar effects on mean progression of structural damage (not statistically significant). Analysis on erosion and JSN score were consistent with overall results. These results are shown in Table 3.
In the placebo plus MTX group, 78% of patients experienced no radiographic progression at Month 6 compared to 89% and 87% of patients treated with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 or 10 mg twice daily respectively, plus MTX, both significant vs. placebo plus MTX. (See Table 3.)

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In Study VI, Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) monotherapy resulted in significantly greater inhibition of the progression of structural damage compared to MTX at Months 6 and 12 as shown in Table 4, which was also maintained at Month 24. Analyses of erosion and JSN scores were consistent with overall results.
In the MTX group, 70% of patients experienced no radiographic progression at Month 6 compared to 84% and 90% of patients treated with tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily respectively, both significant vs. MTX. (See Table 4.)

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Physical Function Response and Health Related Outcomes: Improvement in physical functioning was measured by the HAQ-DI. Patients receiving Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 or 10 mg twice daily demonstrated significantly greater improvement from baseline in physical functioning compared to placebo at Month 3 (Studies I, II, III, and V) and Month 6 (Studies II and III). Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 or 10 mg twice daily-treated patients exhibited significantly greater improved physical functioning compared to placebo as early as Week 2 in Studies I and II. In Study III, mean HAQ-DI improvements were maintained to 12 months in Tofacitinib (Xeljanz)-treated patients. Mean HAQ-DI improvements were maintained for 36 months in the ongoing open-label extension studies. Compared with adalimumab-treated patients, at Month 3, patients in the Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg twice daily had similar decreases from baseline in HAQ-DI values and patients in 10 mg twice daily group had significantly greater decreases in HAQ-DI. The mean change in HAQ-DI from baseline to Month 3 in Studies I to VI are shown in Table 5. (See Table 5.)

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Health-related quality of life was assessed by the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) in all 5 studies. In these studies, patients receiving Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 10 mg twice daily demonstrated significantly greater improvement from baseline compared to placebo in all 8 domains of the SF-36 as well as the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and the Mental Component Summary (MCS) at Month 3. Both Tofacitinib (Xeljanz)-treated groups exhibited significantly greater improvement from baseline compared to placebo in all 8 domains as well as PCS and MCS at Month 3 in Studies I, IV, and V. In Studies III and IV, mean SF-36 improvements were maintained to 12 months in Tofacitinib (Xeljanz)-treated patients.
Improvement in fatigue was evaluated by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) scale at Month 3 in all studies. Patients receiving Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 or 10 mg twice daily demonstrated significantly greater improvement from baseline in fatigue compared to placebo in all 5 studies. In Studies III and IV, mean FACIT-F improvements were maintained to 12 months in Tofacitinib (Xeljanz)-treated patients.
Improvement in sleep was assessed using the Sleep Problems Index I and II summary scales of the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep (MOS-Sleep) measure at Month 3 in all studies. Patients receiving Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 or 10 mg twice daily demonstrated significantly greater improvement from baseline in both scales compared to placebo in Studies II, III, and IV. In Studies III and IV, mean improvements in both scales were maintained to 12 months in Tofacitinib (Xeljanz)-treated patients.
Improvement in productivity was evaluated using the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) scale at Month 3 in all studies. Patients receiving Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 10 mg twice daily demonstrated significantly greater improvement from baseline in the Overall Output Summary Scale compared to placebo in Studies III, IV, and V. In Studies III and IV, mean Overall Output improvements were maintained to 12 months in Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 10 mg twice daily-treated patients.
Durability of clinical responses: Durability of effect was assessed by ACR20, ACR50, ACR70 response rates, mean HAQ-DI, and mean DAS28-4(ESR) in the three Phase 3 DMARD IR studies with duration of at least one year. Efficacy was maintained in all tofacitinib treatment groups through to the end of the studies. Evidence of persistence of efficacy with tofacitinib treatment for up to 7 years is also provided from data in the one ongoing and one completed open-label, long-term follow-up studies.
Pharmacokinetics: The PK profile of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) is characterized by rapid absorption (peak plasma concentrations are reached within 0.5-1 hour), rapid elimination (half-life of ~3 hours) and dose-proportional increases in systemic exposure. Steady-state concentrations are achieved in 24-48 hours with negligible accumulation after twice daily administration.
Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR): Following oral administration of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR), peak plasma concentrations are reached at 4 hours and half life is ~6 hours. Steady state concentrations are achieved within 48 hours with negligible accumulation after once daily administration. AUC and Cmax of tofacitinib for Xeljanz XR 11 mg administered once daily are bioequivalent to those of Xeljanz 5 mg administered twice daily.
Absorption and Distribution: Tofacitinib is well-absorbed, with an oral bioavailability of 74% following administration of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz). Co-administration of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) with a high-fat meal resulted in no changes in AUC while Cmax was reduced by 32%. In clinical trials, tofacitinib was administered without regard to meal.
After intravenous administration, the volume of distribution is 87 L. Approximately 40% of circulating tofacitinib is bound to proteins. Tofacitinib binds predominantly to albumin and does not appear to bind to α1-acid glycoprotein. Tofacitinib distributes equally between red blood cells and plasma.
Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR): Co-administration of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR) with a high-fat meal resulted in no changes in AUC while Cmax was increased by 27% and Tmax was extended by approximately 1 hour.
Metabolism and Elimination: Clearance mechanisms for tofacitinib are approximately 70% hepatic metabolism and 30% renal excretion of the parent drug. The metabolism of tofacitinib is primarily mediated by CYP3A4 with minor contribution from CYP2C19. In a human radiolabeled study, more than 65% of the total circulating radioactivity was accounted for by unchanged drug, with the remaining 35% attributed to 8 metabolites, each accounting for less than 8% of total radioactivity. All metabolites have been observed in animal species and are predicted to have ≤10% of the potency of tofacitinib for JAK1/3 inhibition. No evidence of stereo conversion in human samples was detected. The pharmacologic activity of tofacitinib is attributed to the parent molecule.
Pharmacokinetic data and dosing recommendations for special populations and drug interactions are provided in Figure 2.
Modifications required for special populations are described in Dosage & Administration.
Pharmacokinetics in RA Patients: Population PK analysis in rheumatoid arthritis patients indicated that systemic exposure (AUC) of tofacitinib in the extremes of body weight (40 kg, 140 kg) were similar to that of a 70 kg patient. Elderly patients 80 years of age were estimated to have <5% higher AUC relative to the mean age of 55 years. Women were estimated to have 7% lower AUC compared to men. The available data have also shown that there are no major differences in tofacitinib AUC between White, Black and Asian patients. An approximate linear relationship between body weight and volume of distribution was observed, resulting in higher peak (Cmax) and lower trough (Cmin) concentrations in lighter patients. However, this difference is not considered to be clinically relevant. The between-subject variability (percentage coefficient of variation) in AUC of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) is estimated to be approximately 27%.
Renal Impairment: Patients with mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment had 37%, 43% and 123% higher AUC, respectively, compared with healthy patients (see Dosage & Administration). In patients with end-stage renal disease, the contribution of dialysis to the total clearance of tofacitinib was relatively small.
Hepatic Impairment: Patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment had 3% and 65% higher AUC, respectively, compared with healthy patients. Patients with severe hepatic impairment were not studied (see Dosage & Administration).
Pediatric Population: The pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of tofacitinib in pediatric patients have not been established. (See Figure 2.)

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Toxicology: Preclinical Safety Data: In non-clinical studies, effects were observed on the immune and hematopoietic systems that were attributed to the pharmacological properties (JAK inhibition) of tofacitinib. Secondary effects from immunosuppression, such as bacterial and viral infections and lymphoma were observed at clinically relevant doses. Other findings at doses well above human exposures included effects on the liver, lung and gastrointestinal systems.
Lymphoma was observed in 3 of 8 adult and 0 of 14 juvenile monkeys dosed with tofacitinib at 5 mg/kg twice daily. The no. observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for the lymphomas was 1 mg/kg twice daily. The unbound AUC at 1 mg/kg twice daily was 341 ng•h/mL, which is approximately half of the unbound AUC at 10 mg twice daily and similar to the unbound AUC at 5 mg twice daily in humans.
Tofacitinib is not mutagenic or genotoxic based on the results of a series of in vitro and in vivo tests for gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations.
The carcinogenic potential of tofacitinib was assessed in 6-month rasH2 transgenic mouse carcinogenicity and 2-year rat carcinogenicity studies. Tofacitinib was not carcinogenic in mice up to a high dose of 200 mg/kg/day (unbound drug AUC of ~19-fold the human AUC at 10 mg twice daily). Benign Leydig cell tumors were observed in rats: benign Leydig cell tumors in rats are not associated with a risk of Leydig cell tumors in humans. Hibernomas (malignancy of brown adipose tissue) were observed in female rats at doses ≥30 mg/kg/day (unbound drug AUC of ~41-fold the human AUC at 10 mg twice daily). Benign thymomas were observed in female rats dosed only at the 100 reduced to 75 mg/kg/day dose (unbound drug AUC of ~94-fold the human AUC at 10 mg twice daily).
Tofacitinib was shown to be teratogenic in rats and rabbits, and have effects in rats on female fertility, parturition, and peri-/post-natal development. Tofacitinib had no effects on male fertility, sperm motility, or sperm concentration. Tofacitinib was secreted in milk of lactating rats.
Indications/Uses
Treatment of adult patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who have had an inadequate response to one or more disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARDs).
Dosage/Direction for Use
Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) has not been studied and use should be avoided in combination with TNF antagonists, IL-1R antagonists, IL-6R antagonists, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, IL-17 antagonists, IL-12/IL23 antagonists, anti-integrins, and selective co-stimulation modulators and potent immunosuppressants, such as azathioprine, cyclosporine, and tacrolimus because of the possibility of increased immunosuppression and increased risk of infection.
Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) treatment should be interrupted if a patient develops a serious infection until the infection is controlled.
Method of Administration: Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) is given orally with or without food.
Rheumatoid Arthritis Dosing: Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) may be used as monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate (MTX) or other non-biologic DMARDs. The recommended dose of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) is 5 mg administered twice daily. Some patients may benefit from an increase to 10 mg administered twice daily based on clinical response.
Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR): The recommended dose of Xeljanz XR is 11 mg once daily.
Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR) 11 mg once daily has demonstrated pharmacokinetic equivalence (AUC and Cmax) to Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg twice daily.
Switching from Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) Tablets to Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR) Tablets for Rheumatoid Arthritis Posology: Patients treated with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg twice daily may be switched to Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR) 11 mg once daily the day following the last dose of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg.
Dose Adjustments in Rheumatoid Arthritis due to Laboratory Abnormalities (see Precautions): Dose adjustment or interruption of dosing may be needed for management of dose-related laboratory abnormalities including lymphopenia, neutropenia and anemia as described in Tables 6, 7 and 8 as follows.
It is recommended that Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) not be initiated in patients with a lymphocyte count less than 500 cells/mm3. (See Table 6.)

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It is recommended that Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) not be initiated in patients with an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) <1,000 cells/mm3. (See Table 7.)

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It is recommended that Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) not be initiated in patients with hemoglobin <9 g/dL. (See Table 8.)

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Special Populations: Renal Impairment: Rheumatoid Arthritis: No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) dosage should not exceed 5 mg twice daily, and Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR) dosage should not exceed 11 mg once daily, in patients with severe renal impairment (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions and Precautions).
Hepatic Impairment: Rheumatoid Arthritis: No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild hepatic impairment. Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) should not be used in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) dosage should not exceed 5 mg twice daily, and Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR) dosage should not exceed 11 mg once daily, in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions and Precautions).
Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Receiving Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) and Cytochrome 2C19 (CYP2C19): Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) dosage should not exceed 5 mg twice daily, and Tofacitinib (Zeljanz XR) dose should not exceed 11 mg once daily in patients receiving potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g., ketoconazole). Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) dosage should not exceed 5 mg twice daily, Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR) dosage should not exceed 11 mg once daily, in patients receiving one or more concomitant medications that result in both moderate inhibition of CYP3A4 and potent inhibition of CYP2C19 (e.g., fluconazole).
Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Receiving Inducers of Cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4): Co-administration of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) with potent CYP inducers (e.g., rifampin) may result in loss of or reduced clinical response (see Interactions). Co-administration of potent inducers of CYP3A4 with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) is not recommended.
Elderly Patients (≥65 years): No dosage adjustment is required in patients aged 65 years and older.
Pediatric: The safety and efficacy of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) in children aged from neonates to <18 years of age has not yet been established.
Overdosage
There is no experience with overdose of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR). There is no specific antidote for overdose with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR). Treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. In case of an overdose, it is recommended that the patient be monitored for signs and symptoms of adverse reactions. Patients who develop adverse reactions should receive appropriate treatment.
Pharmacokinetic data up to and including a single dose of 100 mg in healthy volunteers indicates that more than 95% of the administered dose is expected to be eliminated within 24 hours.
Contraindications
None.
Special Precautions
Serious Infections: Serious and sometimes fatal infections due to bacterial, mycobacterial, invasive fungal, viral, or other opportunistic pathogens have been reported in patients receiving immunomodulatory agents, including biologic DMARDs and Tofacitinib (Xeljanz). The most common serious infections reported with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) included pneumonia, cellulitis, herpes zoster, urinary tract infection, diverticulitis, and appendicitis. Among opportunistic infections, tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections, cryptococcus, histoplasmosis, esophageal candidiasis, multidermatomal herpes zoster, cytomegalovirus infection, BK virus infections, and listeriosis were reported with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz). Some patients have presented with disseminated rather than localized disease, and rheumatoid arthritis patients were often taking concomitant immunomodulating agents, such as methotrexate or corticosteroids which, in addition to rheumatoid arthritis may predispose them to infections. Other serious infections that were not reported in clinical studies may also occur (e.g., coccidioidomycosis).
Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) should not be initiated in patients with an active infection; including localized infections. The risks and benefits of treatment should be considered prior to initiating Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) in patients with chronic or recurrent infections, or those who have been exposed to tuberculosis, or with a history of a serious or an opportunistic infection, or have resided or travelled in areas of endemic tuberculosis or endemic mycoses; or have underlying conditions that may predispose them to infection.
Patients should be closely monitored for the development of signs and symptoms of infection during and after treatment with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR). Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) should be interrupted if a patient develops a serious infection, an opportunistic infection, or sepsis. A patient who develops a new infection during treatment with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) should undergo prompt and complete diagnostic testing appropriate for an immunocompromised patient, appropriate antimicrobial therapy should be initiated, and the patient should be closely monitored.
As there is a higher incidence of infections in the elderly and in the diabetic populations in general, caution should be used when treating the elderly and patients with diabetes (see Adverse Reactions). Caution is also recommended in patients with a history of chronic lung disease as they may be more prone to infections. Events of interstitial lung disease (some of which had a fatal outcome) have been reported in patients treated with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR), a Janus-kinase (JAK) inhibitor, in clinical trials and in the post-marketing setting although the role of JAK inhibition in these events is not known.
Risk of infection may be higher with increasing degrees of lymphopenia and consideration should be given to lymphocyte counts when assessing individual patient risk of infection. Discontinuation and monitoring criteria for lymphopenia are discussed in Dosage & Administration.
Tuberculosis: Patients should be evaluated and tested for latent or active infection prior to and per applicable guidelines during administration of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR).
Patients with latent tuberculosis should be treated with standard antimycobacterial therapy before administering Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR).
Antituberculosis therapy should also be considered prior to administration of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) in patients with a past history of latent or active tuberculosis in whom an adequate course of treatment cannot be confirmed, and for patients with a negative test for latent tuberculosis but who have risk factors for tuberculosis infection. Consultation with a health care professional with expertise in the treatment of tuberculosis is recommended to aid in the decision about whether initiating antituberculosis therapy is appropriate for an individual patient.
Patients should be closely monitored for the development of signs and symptoms of tuberculosis, including patients who tested negative for latent tuberculosis infection prior to initiating therapy.
Viral Reactivation: Viral reactivation has been reported with DMARD treatment and cases of herpes virus reactivation (e.g., herpes zoster) were observed in clinical studies with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz). The impact of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) on chronic viral hepatitis reactivation is unknown. Patients who screened positive for hepatitis B or C were excluded from clinical trials. Screening for viral hepatitis should be performed in accordance with clinical guidelines before starting therapy with tofacitinib.
The risk of herpes zoster appears to be higher in Japanese and Korean patients treated with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz).
Malignancy and Lymphoproliferative Disorder (Excluding Non-melanoma Skin Cancer [NMSC]): Consider the risks and benefits of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) treatment prior to initiating therapy in patients with current or a history of malignancy other than a successfully treated non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) or when considering continuing Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) in patients who develop a malignancy. The possibility exists for Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) to affect host defenses against malignancies.
Lymphomas have been observed in patients treated with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz). Patients with rheumatoid arthritis, particularly those with highly active disease, and patients with psoriasis may be at a higher risk (up to several-fold) than the general population for the development of lymphoma. The role of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) in the development of lymphoma is uncertain.
Other malignancies were observed in clinical studies and the post-marketing setting, including, but not limited to, lung cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancer.
The role of treatment with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) on the development and course of malignancies is not known.
Recommendations for non-melanoma skin cancer are presented as follows.
Rheumatoid Arthritis: In controlled Phase 3 clinical studies in rheumatoid arthritis patients, 26 malignancies (excluding NMSC) including 5 lymphoma were diagnosed in 26 patients receiving Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) plus DMARD, compared to 0 malignancies (excluding NMSC) in patients in the placebo/placebo plus DMARD and 2 in 2 patients in the adalimumab group, 1 in 1 patient in the methotrexate group. 3,800 patients (3,942 patient-years of observation) were treated with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) for durations up to 2 years while 681 patients (203 patient-years of observation) were treated with placebo for a maximum of 6 months and 204 patients (179 patient-years of observation) were treated with adalimumab for 12 months. The exposure-adjusted incidence rate for malignancies and lymphoma was 0.66 and 0.13 events per 100 patient-years, respectively, in the Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) groups.
In the long-term safety population (4,867 patients), in rheumatoid arthritis studies, the rate of malignancies (excluding NMSC) and lymphoma was 0.97 and 0.09 events per 100 patient-years, respectively consistent with the rate observed in the controlled period.
Non-melanoma Skin Cancer: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) have been reported in patients treated with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz). Periodic skin examination is recommended for patients who are at increased risk for skin cancer (see Table 9 under Adverse Reactions).
Gastrointestinal Perforations: Events of gastrointestinal perforation have been reported in clinical trials, although the role of JAK inhibition in these events is not known. Events were primarily reported as diverticular perforation, peritonitis, abdominal abscess and appendicitis. In the rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials, the incidence rate of gastrointestinal perforation across all studies (Phase 1, Phase 2, Phase 3 and long-term extension) for all treatments groups all doses was 0.11 events per 100 patient-years with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) therapy. Rheumatoid arthritis patients who developed gastrointestinal perforations were taking concomitant non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or corticosteroids. The relative contribution of these concomitant medications vs. Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) to the development of gastrointestinal perforations is not known.
Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) should be used with caution in patients who may be at increased risk for gastrointestinal perforation (e.g., patients with a history of diverticulitis). Patients presenting with new onset abdominal symptoms should be evaluated promptly for early identification of gastrointestinal perforation.
Laboratory Parameters: Lymphocytes: Lymphocyte counts <500 cells/mm3 were associated with an increased incidence of treated and serious infections. It is not recommended to initiate Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) treatment in patients with a low lymphocyte count (i.e., <500 cells/mm3). In patients who develop a confirmed absolute lymphocyte count <500 cells/mm3 treatment with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) is not recommended. Lymphocytes should be monitored at baseline and every 3 months thereafter. For recommended modifications based on lymphocyte counts (see Dosage & Administration).
Neutrophils: Treatment with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) was associated with an increased incidence of neutropenia (<2,000 cells/mm3) compared to placebo. It is not recommended to initiate Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) treatment in patients with a low neutrophil count (i.e., ANC <1,000 cells/mm3). For patients who develop a persistent ANC of 500-1,000 cells/mm3, reduce Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) dose or interrupt Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) dosing until ANC is >1,000 cells/mm3. In patients who develop a confirmed absolute neutrophil count <500 cells/mm3 treatment with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) is not recommended. Neutrophils should be monitored at baseline and after 4 to 8 weeks of treatment and every 3 months thereafter (see Dosage & Administration and Adverse Reactions).
Hemoglobin: It is not recommended to initiate Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) treatment in patients with low hemoglobin values (i.e., <9 g/dL). Treatment with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) should be interrupted in patients who develop hemoglobin levels <8 g/dL or whose hemoglobin level drops >2 g/dL on treatment. Hemoglobin should be monitored at baseline and after 4 to 8 weeks of treatment and every 3 months thereafter (see Dosage & Administration and Adverse Reactions).
Lipids: Treatment with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) was associated with increases in lipid parameters, such as total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Maximum effects were generally observed within 6 weeks. Assessment of lipid parameters should be performed approximately 4 to 8 weeks following initiation of Tofacitinib (Xeljan/Xeljanz) therapy. Patients should be managed according to clinical guidelines (e.g., National Cholesterol Educational Program) for the management of hyperlipidemia. Increases in total and LDL cholesterol associated with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) may be decreased to pretreatment levels with statin therapy.
Vaccinations: No data are available on the secondary transmission of infection by live vaccines to patients receiving Tofacitinib (Xeljanz). It is recommended that live vaccines not be given concurrently with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR). It is recommended that all patients be brought up to date with all immunizations in agreement with current immunization guidelines prior to initiating Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) therapy. The interval between live vaccinations and initiation of tofacitinib therapy should be in accordance with current vaccination guidelines regarding immunomodulatory agents. Consistent with these guidelines, if live zoster vaccine is administered, it should only be administered to patients with a known history of chickenpox or those that are seropositive for varicella zoster virus. Vaccination should occur at least 2 weeks but preferably 4 weeks before initiating immunomodulatory agents such as tofacitinib.
In a controlled clinical trial, the humoral response to concurrent vaccination with influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines in patients with rheumatoid arthritis initiating tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily or placebo was evaluated. A similar percentage of patients achieved a satisfactory humoral response to influenza vaccine (≥4-fold increase in ≥2 of 3 antigens) in the tofacitinib (57%) and placebo (62%) treatment groups. A modest reduction in the percentage of patients who achieved a satisfactory humoral response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (≥2-fold increase in ≥6 of 12 serotypes) was observed in patients treated with tofacitinib monotherapy (62%) and methotrexate monotherapy (62%) as compared with placebo (77%), with a greater reduction in the response rate of patients receiving both tofacitinib and methotrexate (32%). The clinical significance of this is unknown.
A separate vaccine study evaluated the humoral response to concurrent vaccination with influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines in patients receiving tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily for a median of approximately 22 months. Greater than 60% of patients treated with tofacitinib (with or without methotrexate) had satisfactory responses to influenza and pneumococcal vaccines. Consistent with the controlled trial, patients receiving both tofacitinib and MTX had a lower response rate to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine as compared with tofacitinib monotherapy (66% vs. 89%).
A controlled study in patients with rheumatoid arthritis on background methotrexate evaluated the humoral and cell-mediated responses to immunization with a live-attenuated virus vaccine (Zostavax) indicated for prevention of herpes zoster. The immunization occurred 2 to 3 weeks before initiating a 12-week treatment with tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily or placebo. Six weeks after immunization with the zoster vaccine, tofacitinib and placebo recipients exhibited similar humoral and cell-mediated responses (mean fold change of VZV IgG antibodies 2.11 in tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily and 1.74 in placebo twice daily; VZV IgG fold-rise ≥ 1.5 in 57% of tofacitinib recipients and in 43% of placebo recipients; mean fold change of VZV T-cell ELISPOT Spot Forming Cells 1.5 in tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily and 1.29 in placebo twice daily). These responses were similar to those observed in healthy volunteers aged 50 years and older.
In this study one patient experienced dissemination of the vaccine strain of varicella zoster virus, 16 days after vaccination. The patient was varicella virus naive, as evidenced by no previous history of varicella infection and no anti-varicella antibodies at baseline. Tofacitinib was discontinued and the subject recovered after treatment with standard doses of antiviral medication. Subsequent testing showed that this patient made robust anti-varicella T-cell and antibody responses to the vaccine approximately 6 weeks post-vaccination, but not at 2 weeks post-vaccination, as expected for a primary infection.
Patients with Renal Impairment: No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) dose should not exceed 5 mg twice daily and Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR) dose should not exceed 11 mg once daily in patients with severe renal impairment (see Dosage & Administration). In clinical trials, Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) was not evaluated in patients with baseline creatinine clearance values (estimated by Cockroft-Gault equation) <40 mL/min (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions and Dosage & Administration).
Patients with Hepatic Impairment: No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild hepatic impairment. Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) dose should not exceed 5 mg twice daily and Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR) should not exceed 11 mg once daily in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (see Dosage & Administration). Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) should not be used in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see Dosage & Administration). Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) should not be used in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see Dosage & Administration). In clinical trials, Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) was not evaluated in patients with severe hepatic impairment, or in patients with positive HBV or HCV serology.
Combination with Other Therapies: Rheumatoid Arthritis: Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) has not been studied and its use should be avoided in RA patients in combination with biological DMARDs, such as TNF antagonists, IL-1R antagonists, IL-6R antagonists, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and selective co-stimulation modulators and potent immunosuppressants, such as azathioprine and cyclosporine because of the possibility of increased immunosuppression and increased risk of infection.
General: Specific to Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR): As with any other non-deformable material, caution should be used when administering Tofacitinib (Xeljanz XR) to patients with pre-existing severe gastrointestinal narrowing (pathologic or iatrogenic). There have been rare reports of obstructive symptoms in patients with known strictures in association with the ingestion of other drugs utilizing a non-deformable modified release formulation.
Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines: No formal studies have been conducted on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies on the use of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) in pregnant women. Tofacitinib has been shown to be teratogenic in rats and rabbits, and have effects in rats on female fertility, parturition, and peri-/post-natal development (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical Safety Data under Actions). Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly necessary.
Women of reproductive potential should be advised to use effective contraception during treatment with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) and for at least 4 weeks after the last dose.
Tofacitinib was secreted in the milk of lactating rats (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical Safety Data under Actions). It is not known whether tofacitinib is secreted in human milk. Women should not breastfeed while treated with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR).
Adverse Reactions
Rheumatoid Arthritis: The following data includes 6 double-blind, controlled, multicenter studies of varying durations from 6-24 months (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Studies I-VI under Actions). In these studies, 3,200 patients were randomized and treated to doses of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg twice daily (616 patients) or 10 mg twice daily (642 patients) monotherapy and Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg twice daily (973 patients) or 10 mg twice daily (969 patients) in combination with DMARDs (including methotrexate).
All patients in these studies had moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis. The study Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) population had a mean age of 52.1 years and 83.2% were female.
The long-term safety population includes all patients who participated in a double-blind, controlled study (including earlier development phase studies) and then participated in one of two long-term safety studies.
A total of 6,194 patients (Phase 1, 2, 3, and long-term extension studies) were treated with any dose of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) with a mean duration of 3.13 years, with 19,405.8 patient-years of accumulated total drug exposure based on more than 8 years of continuous exposure to Tofacitinib (Xeljanz).
Clinical Trials Experience: The most common serious adverse reactions in rheumatoid arthritis were serious infections (see Precautions).
Rheumatoid Arthritis: In rheumatoid arthritis, the most commonly reported adverse reactions during the first 3 months in controlled clinical trials (occurring in ≥2% of patients treated with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) monotherapy or in combination with DMARDs) were headache, upper respiratory tract infections, nasopharyngitis, hypertension, nausea, and diarrhea.
The proportion of patients who discontinued treatment due to any adverse reactions during first 3 months of the double-blind, placebo or methotrexate controlled studies was 3.8% for patients taking tofacitinib and 3.2% for placebo-treated patients. The most common infections resulting in discontinuation of therapy were herpes zoster and pneumonia.
The Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) listed in the table as follows are presented by System Organ Class (SOC). Within each SOC, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness or clinical importance. (See Table 9.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Overall Infections: Rheumatoid Arthritis: In the 6-month and 24-month, controlled Phase 3 clinical studies, the rates of infections in the 5 mg twice daily (total 616 patients) and 10 mg twice daily (total 642 patients) Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) monotherapy group were 16.2% (100 patients), and 17.9% (115 patients), respectively, compared to 18.9% (23 patients) in the placebo group (total 122 patients). In studies of 6-month, 12-month, or 24-month duration with background DMARDs, the rates of infections in the 5 mg twice daily (total 973 patients) and 10 mg twice daily (total 969 patients) Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) plus DMARD group were 21.3% (207 patients) and 21.8% (211 patients), respectively, compared to 18.4% (103 patients) in the placebo plus DMARD group (total 559 patients).
The most commonly reported infections were upper respiratory tract infections and nasopharyngitis (3.7% and 3.2%, respectively).
The overall rate of infections with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) in the long-term safety all exposure population (total 4,867 patients) was 46.1 patients with events per 100 patient-years (43.8 and 47.2 patients with events for 5 mg and 10 mg twice daily, respectively). For patients (total 1,750) on monotherapy, the rates were 48.9 and 41.9 patients with events per 100 patient years for 5 mg and 10 mg twice daily, respectively. For patients (total 3,117) on background DMARDs, the rates were 41.0 and 50.3 patients with events per 100 patient-years for 5 mg and 10 mg twice daily, respectively.
Serious Infections: Rheumatoid Arthritis: In the 6-month and 24-month, controlled clinical studies, the rate of serious infections in the 5 mg twice daily Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) monotherapy group was 1.7 patients with events per 100 patient-years. In the 10 mg twice daily Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) monotherapy group, the rate was 1.6 patients with events per 100 patient-years, the rate was 0 events per 100 patient-years for the placebo group and the rate was 1.9 patients with events per 100 patient-years for the methotrexate group.
In studies of 6-, 12- or 24-months duration, the rates of serious infections in the 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg twice daily Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) plus DMARD groups were 3.6 and 3.4 patients with events per 100 patient-years, respectively, compared to 1.7 patients with events per 100 patient-years in the placebo plus DMARD group.
In the long-term safety all exposure population, the overall rates of serious infections were 2.4 and 3.0 patients with events per 100 patient-years for 5 mg and 10 mg twice daily Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) groups, respectively. The most common serious infections reported with Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) included pneumonia, herpes zoster, urinary tract infection, cellulitis, gastroenteritis, and diverticulitis. Cases of opportunistic infections have been reported (see Precautions).
Of the 4271 patients who enrolled in Studies I to VI, a total of 608 rheumatoid arthritis patients were 65 years of age and older, including 85 patients 75 years and older. The frequency of serious infection among Tofacitinib (Xeljanz)-treated patients 65 years of age and older was higher than those under the age of 65. As there is a higher incidence of infections in the elderly population in general, caution should be used when treating the elderly.
Viral Reactivation: In Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) clinical trials, Japanese and Korean patients appear to have a higher rate of herpes zoster than that observed in other populations.
Clinical Experience in Methotrexate-Naive Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Study VI was an active-controlled clinical trial in methotrexate-naive RA patients (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions). The safety experience in these patients was consistent with Studies I-V.
Laboratory Tests: Rheumatoid Arthritis: Lymphocytes: In the controlled clinical studies in rheumatoid arthritis, confirmed decreases in lymphocyte counts below 500 cells/mm3 occurred in 0.23% of patients for the 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg twice daily doses combined.
In the long-term safety population in rheumatoid arthritis, confirmed decreases in lymphocyte counts below 500 cells/mm3 occurred in 1.3% of patients for the 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg twice daily doses combined.
Confirmed lymphocyte counts <500 cells/mm3 were associated with an increased incidence of treated and serious infections (see Precautions).
Neutrophils: In the controlled clinical studies in rheumatoid arthritis, confirmed decreases in ANC below 1000 cells/mm3 occurred in 0.08% of patients for the 5 mg twice daily and 10 mg twice daily doses combined. There were no confirmed decreases in ANC below 500 cells/mm3 observed in any treatment group. There was no clear relationship between neutropenia and the occurrence of serious infections.
In the long-term safety population, the pattern and incidence of confirmed decreases in ANC remained consistent with what was seen in the controlled clinical studies (see Precautions).
Liver Enzyme Tests: Rheumatoid Arthritis: Confirmed increases in liver enzymes >3 times the upper limit of normal (3x ULN) were uncommonly observed. In patients experiencing liver enzyme elevation, modification of treatment regimen, such as reduction in the dose of concomitant DMARD, interruption of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz), or reduction in Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) dose, resulted in decrease or normalization of liver enzymes.
In the controlled portion of the Phase 3 monotherapy study (0-3 months), (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Study I under Actions), ALT elevations >3x ULN were observed in 1.65%, 0.41%, and 0% of patients receiving placebo, Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg and 10 mg twice daily, respectively. In this study, AST elevations >3x ULN were observed in 1.65%, 0.41% and 0% of patients receiving placebo, Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg, and 10 mg twice daily, respectively.
In the Phase 3 monotherapy study (0-24 months) (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Study VI under Actions), ALT elevations >3x ULN were observed in 7.1%, 3.0%, and 3.0% of patients receiving methotrexate, Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg, and 10 mg twice daily, respectively. In this study, AST elevations >3x ULN were observed in 3.3%, 1.6% and 1.5% of patients receiving methotrexate, Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg, and 10 mg twice daily, respectively.
In the controlled portion of the Phase 3 studies on background DMARDs (0-3 months) (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Studies II-V under Actions), ALT elevations >3x ULN were observed in 0.9%, 1.24% and 1.14% of patients receiving placebo, Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg, and 10 mg twice daily, respectively. In these studies, AST elevations >3x ULN were observed in 0.72%, 0.50% and 0.31% of patients receiving placebo, Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg, and 10 mg twice daily, respectively.
Lipids: Elevations in lipid parameters (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides) were first assessed at one month following initiation of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) in the controlled double-blind clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis. Increases were observed at this time point and remained stable thereafter.
Rheumatoid Arthritis: Changes in lipid parameters from baseline through the end of the study (6-24 months) in the controlled clinical studies in rheumatoid arthritis are summarized as follows: Mean LDL cholesterol increased by 15% in the Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg twice daily arm and 20% in the Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 10 mg twice daily arm at month 12, and increased by 16% in the Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg twice daily arm and 19% in the Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 10 mg twice daily arm at month 24.
Mean HDL cholesterol increased by 17% in the Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg twice daily arm and 18% in the Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 10 mg twice daily arm at month 12, and increased by 19% in the Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 5 mg twice daily arm and 20% in the Tofacitinib (Xeljanz) 10 mg twice daily arm at month 24.
Upon withdrawal of tofacitinib treatment, lipid levels returned to baseline.
In rheumatoid arthritis, Mean LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratios and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB)/ApoA1 ratios were essentially unchanged in Tofacitinib (Xeljanz)-treated patients.
In a controlled clinical trial, elevations in LDL cholesterol and ApoB decreased to pretreatment levels in response to statin therapy.
In the long-term safety populations, elevations in the lipid parameters remained consistent with what was seen in the controlled clinical studies.
Seek medical attention immediately at the first sign of any adverse drug reaction.
Drug Interactions
Interactions Affecting the Use of Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR): Since tofacitinib is metabolized by CYP3A4, interaction with drugs that inhibit or induce CYP3A4 is likely. Tofacitinib exposure is increased when co-administered with potent inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 (e.g., ketoconazole) or when administration of one or more concomitant medications results in both moderate inhibition of CYP3A4 and potent inhibition of CYP2C19 (e.g., fluconazole) (see Dosage & Administration).
Tofacitinib exposure is decreased when co-administered with potent CYP inducers (e.g., rifampin). Inhibitors of CYP2C19 alone or P-glycoprotein are unlikely to significantly alter the PK of tofacitinib.
Concomitant administration with methotrexate (15-25 mg MTX once weekly) had no effect on the PK of tofacitinib. Co-administration of ketoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, with a single dose of tofacitinib increased the AUC and Cmax by 103% and 16%, respectively. Co-administration of fluconazole, a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and a strong inhibitor of CYP2C19, increased the AUC and Cmax of tofacitinib by 79% and 27%, respectively. Co-administration of tacrolimus (Tac), a mild inhibitor of CYP3A4, increased the AUC of tofacitinib by 21% and decreased the Cmax of tofacitinib by 9%. Co-administration of cyclosporine (CsA), a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4, increased the AUC of tofacitinib by 73% and decreased Cmax of tofacitinib by 17%. The combined use of multiple-dose tofacitinib with these potent immunosuppressives has not been studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Co-administration of rifampin, a strong CYP3A4 inducer, decreased the AUC and Cmax of tofacitinib by 84% and 74%, respectively (see Dosage & Administration).
Potential for Tofacitinib (Xeljanz/Xeljanz XR) to Influence the PK of Other Drugs: In vitro studies indicate that tofacitinib does not significantly inhibit or induce the activity of the major human drug metabolizing CYPs (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4) at concentrations exceeding 80 times the steady-state total Cmax at 5 mg twice daily dose in rheumatoid arthritis patients. These in vitro results were confirmed by a human drug interaction study showing no changes in the PK of midazolam, a highly sensitive CYP3A4 substrate, when co-administered with tofacitinib.
In vitro studies indicate that tofacitinib does not significantly inhibit the activity of the major human drug-metabolizing uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), [UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7] at concentrations exceeding 250 times the steady-state total Cmax at 5 mg twice daily dose in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
In vitro data indicate that the potential for tofacitinib to inhibit transporters, such as P-glycoprotein, organic anion transporting polypeptide, organic anionic or cationic transporters at therapeutic concentrations is also low.
Co-administration of tofacitinib did not have an effect on the PK of oral contraceptives, levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol, in healthy female volunteers.
Co-administration of tofacitinib with methotrexate 15-25 mg once weekly decreased the AUC and Cmax of methotrexate by 10% and 13%, respectively. The extent of decrease in methotrexate exposure does not warrant modifications to the individualized dosing of methotrexate.
Co-administration of tofacitinib did not have an effect on the PK of metformin, indicating that tofacitinib does not interfere with the organic cationic transporter (OCT2) in healthy volunteers.
In rheumatoid arthritis patients, the oral clearance of tofacitinib does not vary with time, indicating that tofacitinib does not normalize CYP enzyme activity in RA patients. Therefore, co-administration with tofacitinib is not expected to result in clinically relevant increases in the metabolism of CYP substrates in RA patients.
Pediatric Population: Studies have only been performed in adults.
Storage
Store at temperatures not exceeding 30°C.
ATC Classification
L04AA29 - tofacitinib ; Belongs to the class of selective immunosuppressive agents. Used to induce immunosuppression.
Presentation/Packing
Xeljanz: FC tab 5 mg x 56's, 60's.
Xeljanz XR: FC tab 11 mg x 30's.
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