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Xultophy

Xultophy

Manufacturer:

Novo Nordisk

Distributor:

Novo Nordisk
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Insulin degludec, liraglutide.
Description
1 ml solution contains 100 units insulin degludec* and 3.6 mg liraglutide*.
*Produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by recombinant DNA technology.
One pre-filled pen contains 3 ml.
One dose step contains 1 unit of insulin degludec and 0.036 mg of liraglutide.
Excipients/Inactive ingredients: Glycerol, phenol, zinc acetate, hydrochloric acid (for pH adjustment), sodium hydroxide (for pH adjustment) and water for injections.
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Drugs used in diabetes. Insulins and analogues for injection, long-acting. ATC code: A10AE56.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is a combination product consisting of insulin degludec and liraglutide having complementary mechanisms of action to improve glycaemic control.
Insulin degludec is a basal insulin that forms soluble multi-hexamers upon subcutaneous injection, resulting in a depot from which insulin degludec is continuously and slowly absorbed into the circulation leading to a flat and stable glucose-lowering-effect of insulin degludec with a low day-to-day variability in insulin action.
Insulin degludec binds specifically to the human insulin receptor and results in the same pharmacological effects as human insulin.
The blood glucose-lowering effect of insulin degludec is due to the facilitated uptake of glucose following the binding of insulin to receptors on muscle and fat cells and to the simultaneous inhibition of glucose output from the liver.
Liraglutide is a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue with 97% sequence homology to human GLP-1 that binds to and activates the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). Following subcutaneous administration, the protracted action profile is based on three mechanisms: self-association, which results in slow absorption; binding to albumin; and higher enzymatic stability towards the dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP) enzymes, resulting in a long plasma half-life.
Liraglutide action is mediated via a specific interaction with GLP-1Rs and improves glycaemic control by lowering fasting and postprandial blood glucose. Liraglutide stimulates insulin secretion and lowers inappropriately high glucagon secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. Thus, when blood glucose is high, insulin secretion is stimulated and glucagon secretion is inhibited. Conversely, during hypoglycaemia liraglutide diminishes insulin secretion and does not impair glucagon secretion. The mechanism of blood glucose lowering also involves a minor delay in gastric emptying. Liraglutide reduces body weight and body fat mass through mechanisms involving reduced hunger and lowered energy intake.
GLP-1 is a physiological regulator of appetite and food intake, but the exact mechanism of action is not entirely clear. In animal studies, peripheral administration of liraglutide led to uptake in specific brain regions involved in regulation of appetite, where liraglutide, via specific activation of the GLP-1R, increased key satiety and decreased key hunger signals, thereby leading to lower body weight.
Pharmacodynamic effects: Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) has a stable pharmacodynamic profile with a duration of action reflecting the combination of the individual action profiles of insulin degludec and liraglutide that allows for administration of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) once daily at any time of the day with or without meals. Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) improves glycaemic control through the sustained lowering of fasting plasma glucose levels and postprandial glucose levels after all meals.
Clinical efficacy and safety: Three multi-national clinical trials of 26 or 52 weeks' duration were conducted as controlled, randomised treat-to-target trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The starting dose of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) and insulin degludec/placebo as add-on to OADs was 10 dose steps and 10 units, and 16 dose steps and 16 units, respectively, when transferring from basal insulin. The dose was titrated twice weekly according to Table 1 as follows. Liraglutide was titrated to 1.8 mg. (See Table 1.)

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Add-on to oral glucose lowering medicinal products: The efficacy and safety of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) as add-on to metformin alone or in combination with pioglitazone was compared to insulin degludec and liraglutide in an open-label trial. The efficacy and safety of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) as add-on to sulfonylurea alone or in combination with metformin was compared to placebo in a double-blind trial. The maximum dose of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) was 50 dose steps, while there was no maximum dose in the insulin degludec arm. The key results of the trials are listed in Table 2.
Furthermore, when combined with metformin±pioglitazone, 60.4% of patients treated with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) reached a target of HbA1c <7% without confirmed hypoglycaemic episodes after 26 weeks of treatment. The proportion was significantly larger than observed with insulin degludec (40.9%, odds ratio 2.28, p<0.0001) and similar to that observed with liraglutide (57.7%, odds ratio 1.13, p=0.3184). Rates of confirmed hypoglycaemia were lower with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) than with insulin degludec irrespective of the glycaemic control. The efficacy and safety of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) were sustained up to 52 weeks of treatment. (See Table 2.)

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Transfer from GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy: The efficacy and safety of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) (once-daily) compared to unchanged GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy (dosed according to label), were studied in a 26-weeks randomised, open-label, treat-to-target trial in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on a GLP-1 receptor agonist and metformin alone (74.2%) or in combination with pioglitazone (2.5%), sulfonylurea (21.2%) or both (2.1%).
The starting dose of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) was 16 dose steps and the dose was titrated twice weekly according to Table 1. Patients in the GLP-1 receptor agonist arm were to continue pre-trial GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment.
The key results of the trial are listed in Table 3. (See Table 3.)

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Transfer from basal insulin therapies: The efficacy and safety of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) compared to insulin glargine, both once daily, were studied in a 26-week randomised, open-label, treat-to-target trial in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on insulin glargine (20-50 units) and metformin. The efficacy and safety of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) compared to insulin degludec were studied in a double-blind trial in patients inadequately controlled on basal insulin (20-40 units) and metformin alone or in combination with sulfonylurea/glinides. Basal insulin and sulfonylurea/glinides were discontinued at randomisation. In both trials the starting dose of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) was 16 dose steps. The starting dose of insulin glargine was equal to the pre-trial daily dose while insulin degludec was initiated at16 units. The dose in both trials was titrated twice weekly according to Table 1. The maximum allowed dose was 50 dose steps for Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) and 50 units for insulin degludec while there was no maximum dose for insulin glargine. The key results of the two trials are listed in Table 4 and 5. Furthermore, when compared to insulin glargine, 54.3% of patients treated with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) reached the HbA1c target of <7% without confirmed hypoglycaemic episodes compared to 29.4% of patients treated with insulin glargine (odds ratio 3.24, p<0.001). When compared to insulin degludec, 48.7% of patients reached the HbA1c target of <7% without confirmed hypoglycaemic episodes, which was a significantly higher proportion than observed with insulin degludec (15.6%, odds ratio 5.57, p<0.0001).
The rate of nocturnal hypoglycaemic events was significantly lower with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) compared to insulin glargine (estimated treatment ratio 0.17, p<0.001) while it was similar with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) and insulin degludec treatment. (See Tables 4 and 5.)

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Pharmacokinetics: Overall, the pharmacokinetics of insulin degludec and liraglutide were not affected in a clinically relevant manner when administered as Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) compared with independent injections of insulin degludec and liraglutide.
The following reflects the pharmacokinetic properties of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) unless stated that the presented data is from administration of insulin degludec or liraglutide alone.
Absorption: The overall exposure of insulin degludec was equivalent following administration of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) versus insulin degludec alone while the Cmax was higher by 12%. The overall exposure of liraglutide was equivalent following administration of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) versus liraglutide alone while Cmax was lower by 23%. The differences are considered of no clinical relevance since Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is initiated and titrated according to the individual patient's blood glucose targets.
Insulin degludec and liraglutide exposure increased proportionally with the Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) dose within the full dose range based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis.
The pharmacokinetic profile of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is consistent with once daily dosing and steady state concentration of insulin degludec and liraglutide is reached after 2-3 days of daily administration.
Distribution: Insulin degludec and liraglutide are extensively bound to plasma proteins (>99% and >98%, respectively).
Biotransformation: Insulin degludec: Degradation of insulin degludec is similar to that of human insulin; all metabolites formed are inactive.
Liraglutide: During 24 hours following administration of a single radiolabelled [3H]-liraglutide dose to healthy subjects, the major component in plasma was intact liraglutide. Two minor plasma metabolites were detected (≤9% and ≤5% of total plasma radioactivity exposure). Liraglutide is metabolised in a similar manner to large proteins without a specific organ having been identified as major route of elimination.
Elimination: The half-life of insulin degludec is approximately 25 hours and the half-life of liraglutide is approximately 13 hours.
Special populations: Elderly patients, gender and ethnic origin: Age, gender and ethnic origin had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) based on results from a population pharmacokinetic analysis.
Renal impairment: Insulin degludec: There is no difference in the pharmacokinetics of insulin degludec between healthy subjects and patients with renal impairment.
Liraglutide: Liraglutide exposure was reduced in subjects with renal impairment compared to individuals with normal renal function. Liraglutide exposure was lowered by 33%, 14%, 27% and 28%, respectively, in subjects with mild (creatinine clearance, CrCl 50-80 ml/min), moderate (CrCl 30-50 ml/min), and severe (CrCl <30 ml/min) renal impairment and in end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis.
Similarly, in a 26-week clinical trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate renal impairment (CrCl 30-59 ml/min) had 26% lower liraglutide exposure when compared with a separate trial including patients with type 2 diabetes with normal renal function or mild renal impairment.
Hepatic impairment: Insulin degludec: There is no difference in the pharmacokinetics of insulin degludec between healthy subjects and patients with hepatic impairment.
Liraglutide: The pharmacokinetics of liraglutide was evaluated in subjects with varying degrees of hepatic impairment in a single-dose trial. Liraglutide exposure was decreased by 13-23% in subjects with mild to moderate hepatic impairment compared to healthy subjects. Exposure was significantly lower (44%) in subjects with severe hepatic impairment (Child Pugh score >9).
Paediatric population: No studies have been performed with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) in children and adolescents below 18 years of age.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: The non-clinical development programme for insulin degludec/liraglutide included pivotal combination toxicity studies of up to 90 days duration in a single relevant species (Wistar rats) to support the clinical development programme. Local tolerance was assessed in rabbits and pigs.
Non-clinical safety data revealed no safety concern for humans based on repeated dose toxicity studies.
The local tissue reactions in the two studies in rabbits and pigs, respectively, were limited to mild inflammatory reactions.
No studies have been conducted with the insulin degludec/liraglutide combination to evaluate carcinogenesis, mutagenesis or impairment of fertility. The following data are based upon studies with insulin degludec and liraglutide individually.
Insulin degludec: Non-clinical data reveal no safety concern for humans based on studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenic potential, and toxicity to reproduction.
The ratio of mitogenic relative to metabolic potency for insulin degludec is unchanged compared to human insulin.
Liraglutide: Non-clinical data reveal no special hazards for human based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeat-dose toxicity, or genotoxicity. Non-lethal thyroid C-cell tumours were seen in 2-year carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice. In rats, a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was not observed. These tumours were not seen in monkeys treated for 20 months. These findings in rodents are caused by a non-genotoxic, specific GLP-1R-mediated mechanism to which rodents are particularly sensitive. The relevance for humans is likely to be low but cannot be completely excluded. No other treatment-related tumours have been found.
Animal studies did not indicate direct harmful effects with respect to fertility but slightly increased early embryonic deaths at the highest dose. Dosing with liraglutide during mid-gestation caused a reduction in maternal weight and foetal growth with equivocal effects on ribs in rats and skeletal variation in the rabbit. Neonatal growth was reduced in rats while exposed to liraglutide, and persisted in the post-weaning period in the high dose group. It is unknown whether the reduced pup growth is caused by reduced pup milk intake due to a direct GLP-1 effect or reduced maternal milk production due to decreased caloric intake.
Indications/Uses
Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is indicated for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycaemic control in combination with oral glucose-lowering medicinal products when these alone or combined with a GLP-1 receptor agonist or basal insulin do not provide adequate glycaemic control (see Precautions and Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions for available data on the different combinations).
Dosage/Direction for Use
Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is given once daily by subcutaneous administration. Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) can be administered at any time of the day, preferably at the same time of the day.
Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is to be dosed in accordance with the individual patient's needs. It is recommended to optimise glycaemic control via dose adjustment based on fasting plasma glucose.
Adjustment of dose may be necessary if patients undertake increased physical activity, change their usual diet or during concomitant illness.
Patients who forget a dose are advised to take it upon discovery and then resume their usual once-daily dosing schedule. A minimum of 8 hours between injections should always be ensured. This also applies when administration at the same time of the day is not possible.
Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is administered as dose steps. One dose step contains 1 unit of insulin degludec and 0.036 mg of liraglutide. The pre-filled pen can provide from 1 up to 50 dose steps in one injection in increments of one dose step. The maximum daily dose of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is 50 dose steps (50 units insulin degludec and 1.8 mg liraglutide). The dose counter on the pen shows the number of dose steps.
Add-on to oral glucose lowering medicinal products: The recommended starting dose of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is 10 dose steps (10 units insulin degludec and 0.36 mg liraglutide).
Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) can be added to existing oral anti-diabetic treatment. When Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is added to sulfonylurea therapy, a reduction in the dose of sulfonylurea should be considered (see Precautions).
Transfer from GLP-1 receptor agonist: Therapy with GLP-1 receptor agonists should be discontinued prior to initiation of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy). When transferring from a GLP-1 receptor agonist, the recommended starting dose of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is 16 dose steps (16 units insulin degludec and 0.6 mg liraglutide) (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical efficacy and safety under Actions). The recommended starting dose should not be exceeded. If transferring from a long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist (e.g. once-weekly dosing), the prolonged action should be considered. Treatment with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) should be initiated when the next dose of the long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist would have been taken. Close glucose monitoring is recommended during the transfer and in the following weeks.
Transfer from basal insulin: Therapy with basal insulin should be discontinued prior to initiation of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy). When transferring from basal insulin therapy, the recommended starting dose of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is 16 dose steps (16 units insulin degludec and 0.6 mg liraglutide) (see Precautions and Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical efficacy and safety under Actions). The recommended starting dose should not be exceeded. Close glucose monitoring is recommended during the transfer and in the following weeks.
Special populations: Elderly patients (≥65 years old): Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) can be used in elderly patients. Glucose monitoring is to be intensified and the dose adjusted on an individual basis. The therapeutic experience in patients ≥75 years of age is limited.
Patients with renal impairment: When Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is used in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment, glucose monitoring is to be intensified and the dose adjusted on an individual basis. Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) cannot be recommended for use in patients with severe renal impairment including patients with end-stage renal disease (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Patients with hepatic impairment: The therapeutic experience with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) in patients with hepatic impairment is currently too limited to recommend the use in these patients (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Paediatric population: There is no relevant data in the use of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) in the paediatric population.
Method of administration: Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is for subcutaneous use only. Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) must not be administered intravenously or intramuscularly.
Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is administered subcutaneously by injection in the thigh, the upper arm or the abdomen. Injection sites are always to be rotated within the same region in order to reduce the risk of lipodystrophy. For further instructions on administration, see Special precautions for disposal and other handling under Cautions for Usage.
Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) must not be drawn from the cartridge of the pre-filled pen into a syringe (see Precautions).
Patients should be instructed to always use a new needle. The re-use of insulin pen needles increases the risk of blocked needles, which may cause under- or overdosing. In the event of blocked needles, patients must follow the instructions described in the instructions for use accompanying this leaflet (see Special precautions for disposal and other handling under Cautions for Usage).
Overdosage
Limited data are available with regard to overdose of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy).
Hypoglycaemia may develop if a patient is dosed with more Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) than required: Mild hypoglycaemic episodes can be treated by oral administration of glucose or other products containing sugar. It is therefore recommended that the patient always carries sugar-containing products.
Severe hypoglycaemic episodes, where the patient is not able to treat himself, can be treated with glucagon (0.5 to 1 mg) given intramuscularly or subcutaneously by a trained person, or with glucose given intravenously by a healthcare professional. Glucose must be given intravenously, if the patient does not respond to glucagon within 10 to 15 minutes. Upon regaining consciousness, administration of oral carbohydrates is recommended for the patient in order to prevent a relapse.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to either or both active substances or to any of the excipients listed in Description.
Special Precautions
Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.
Hypoglycaemia: Hypoglycaemia may occur if the dose of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is higher than required. Omission of a meal or unplanned strenuous physical exercise may lead to hypoglycaemia. In combination with sulfonylurea, the risk of hypoglycaemia may be lowered by a reduction in the dose of sulfonylurea. Concomitant diseases in the kidney, liver or diseases affecting the adrenal, pituitary or thyroid gland may require changes of the Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) dose. Patients whose blood-glucose control is greatly improved (e.g. by intensified therapy) may experience a change in their usual warning symptoms of hypoglycaemia, and must be advised accordingly. Usual warning symptoms (see Adverse Reactions) of hypoglycaemia may disappear in patients with long-standing diabetes. The prolonged effect of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) may delay recovery from hypoglycaemia.
Hyperglycaemia: Inadequate dosing and/or discontinuation of anti-diabetic treatment may lead to hyperglycaemia and potentially to hyperosmolar coma. In case of discontinuation of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy), ensure that instruction for initiation of alternative anti-diabetic medication is followed. Furthermore, concomitant illness, especially infections, may lead to hyperglycaemia and thereby cause an increased requirement for anti-diabetic treatment. Usually, the first symptoms of hyperglycaemia develop gradually over a period of hours or days. They include thirst, increased frequency of urination, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, flushed dry skin, dry mouth, and loss of appetite as well as acetone odour of breath.
Administration of rapid-acting insulin should be considered in situations of severe hyperglycaemia. Untreated hyperglycaemic events eventually lead to hyperosmolar coma/diabetic ketoacidosis, which is potentially lethal.
Combination of pioglitazone and insulin medicinal products: Cases of cardiac failure have been reported when pioglitazone was used in combination with insulin medicinal products, especially in patients with risk factors for development of cardiac failure. This should be kept in mind if treatment with the combination of pioglitazone and Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is considered. If the combination is used, patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of heart failure, weight gain and oedema. Pioglitazone should be discontinued if any deterioration in cardiac symptoms occurs.
Eye disorder: Intensification of therapy with insulin, a component of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy), with abrupt improvement in glycaemic control may be associated with temporary worsening of diabetic retinopathy, while long-term improved glycaemic control decreases the risk of progression of diabetic retinopathy.
Antibody formation: Administration of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) may cause formation of antibodies against insulin degludec and/or liraglutide. In rare cases, the presence of such antibodies may necessitate adjustment of the Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) dose in order to correct a tendency to hyper- or hypoglycaemia. Very few patients developed insulin degludec specific antibodies, antibodies cross-reacting to human insulin or anti-liraglutide antibodies following treatment with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy). Antibody formation has not been associated with reduced efficacy of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy).
Acute pancreatitis: Use of GLP-1 receptor agonists including liraglutide, a component of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy), has been associated with a risk of developing acute pancreatitis. There have been few reported events of acute pancreatitis. Patients should be informed of the characteristic symptoms of acute pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) should be discontinued; if acute pancreatitis is confirmed, Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) should not be restarted. Caution should be exercised in patients with a history of pancreatitis.
Thyroid adverse events: Thyroid adverse events, including increased blood calcitonin, goitre and thyroid neoplasm have been reported in clinical trials with GLP-1 receptor agonists including liraglutide, a component of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy), in particular in patients with pre-existing thyroid disease, and Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) should therefore be used with caution in these patients.
Inflammatory bowel disease and diabetic gastroparesis: There is no experience with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and diabetic gastroparesis. Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is therefore not recommended in these patients.
Dehydration: Signs and symptoms of dehydration, including renal impairment and acute renal failure have been reported in clinical trials with GLP-1 receptor agonists including liraglutide, a component of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy). Patients treated with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) should be advised of the potential risk of dehydration in relation to gastrointestinal side effects and take precautions to avoid fluid depletion.
Avoidance of medication errors: Patients must be instructed to always check the pen label before each injection to avoid accidental mix-ups between Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) and other injectable diabetes medicinal products.
Patients must visually verify the dialled units on the dose counter of the pen. Therefore, the requirement for patients to self-inject is that they can read the dose counter on the pen. Patients who are blind or have poor vision must be instructed to always get help/assistance from another person who has good vision and is trained in using the insulin device.
To avoid dosing errors and potential overdose, patients and healthcare professionals should never use a syringe to draw the medicinal product from the cartridge in the pre-filled pen.
In the event of blocked needles, patients must follow the instructions described in the instructions for use accompanying this leaflet (see Special precautions for disposal and other handling under Cautions for Usage).
Populations not studied: Transfer to Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) from doses of basal insulin <20 and >50 units has not been studied.
Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) has not been studied in combination with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, glinides or prandial insulin.
There is limited experience in patients with congestive heart failure New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I-II and Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) should therefore be used with caution in these patients. There is no experience in patients with congestive heart failure NYHA class III-IV and Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is therefore not recommended in these patients.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: The patients ability to concentrate and react may be impaired as a result of hypoglycaemia. This may constitute a risk in situations where these abilities are of special importance (e.g. driving a car or using machines).
Patients must be advised to take precautions to avoid hypoglycaemia while driving. This is particularly important in those who have reduced or absent awareness of the warning signs of hypoglycaemia or have frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia. The advisability of driving should be considered in these circumstances.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: There is no clinical experience with use of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy), insulin degludec or liraglutide in pregnant women. If a patient wishes to become pregnant, or pregnancy occurs, treatment with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) should be discontinued.
Animal reproduction studies with insulin degludec have not revealed any differences between insulin degludec and human insulin regarding embryotoxicity and teratogenicity. Animal studies with liraglutide have shown reproductive toxicity, see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions. The potential risk for humans is unknown.
Breast-feeding: There is no clinical experience with use of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) during breast-feeding. It is not known whether insulin degludec or liraglutide is excreted in human milk. Because of lack of experience, Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) should not be used during breast-feeding.
In rats, insulin degludec was secreted in milk; the concentration in milk was lower than in plasma. Animal studies have shown that the transfer of liraglutide and metabolites of close structural relationship into milk was low. Non-clinical studies with liraglutide have shown a treatment-related reduction of neonatal growth in suckling rat pups (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions).
Fertility: There is no clinical experience with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) in relation to fertility.
Animal reproduction studies with insulin degludec have not revealed any adverse effects on fertility. Apart from a slight decrease in the number of live implants, animal studies with liraglutide did not indicate harmful effects with respect to fertility.
Adverse Reactions
Summary of the safety profile: The most frequently reported adverse reactions during treatment with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) were hypoglycaemia and gastrointestinal adverse reactions (see Description of selected adverse reactions as follows).
Adverse reactions: Adverse reactions associated with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) are given below by frequency. Frequency categories are defined as: Very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000) and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).
Very common: Hypoglycaemia.
Common: Decreased appetite, nausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, constipation, dyspepsia, gastritis, abdominal pain, gastroesophageal reflux disease, abdominal distension, injection site reaction, increased lipase, increased amylase.
Uncommon: Urticaria, hypersensitivity, dehydration, eructation, flatulence, rash, pruritus, lipodystrophy acquired, increased heart rate, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis.
Unknown: Anaphylactic reaction, pancreatitis (including necrotising pancreatitis), peripheral oedema (insulin induced).
Description of selected adverse reactions: Hypoglycaemia: Hypoglycaemia may occur if the Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) dose is higher than required. Severe hypoglycaemia may lead to unconsciousness and/or convulsions and may result in temporary or permanent impairment of brain function or even death. The symptoms of hypoglycaemia usually occur suddenly. They may include cold sweats, cool pale skin, fatigue, nervousness or tremor, anxiousness, unusual tiredness or weakness, confusion, difficulty in concentration, drowsiness, excessive hunger, vision changes, headache, nausea and palpitation.
Allergic reactions: Allergic reactions (manifested with signs and symptoms such as urticaria, rash, pruritus and/or swelling of the face) have been reported for Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy). Few cases of anaphylactic reactions with additional symptoms such as hypotension, palpitations, dyspnoea, and oedema have been reported during marketed use of liraglutide. Anaphylactic reactions may potentially be life threatening.
Gastrointestinal adverse reactions: Gastrointestinal adverse reactions may occur more frequently at the beginning of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) therapy and usually diminish within a few days or weeks on continued treatment. Adverse events including diarrhoea, vomiting, constipation, dyspepsia, gastritis, abdominal pain, gastroesophageal reflux disease, abdominal distension, eructation, flatulence and decreased appetite have been reported in patients treated with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy). The proportion of patients reporting nausea per week at any point during treatment was below 4%.
Injection site reactions: Injection site reactions (including injection site haematoma, pain, haemorrhage, erythema, nodules, swelling, discolouration, pruritus, warmth and injection site mass) have been reported in patients treated with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy). These reactions were usually mild and transitory and they normally disappear during continued treatment.
Lipodystrophy: Lipodystrophy (including lipohypertrophy, lipoatrophy) may occur at the injection site. Continuous rotation of the injection site within the particular injection area may help to reduce the risk of developing these reactions.
Increased heart rate: Mean increase in heart rate from baseline of 2 to 3 beats per minute has been observed in clinical trials with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy). The long-term clinical effects of the increase in heart rate have not been established.
Drug Interactions
Pharmacodynamic interactions: Interaction studies with Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) have not been performed. A number of substances affect glucose metabolism and may require dose adjustment of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy).
The following substances may reduce the Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) requirement: Anti-diabetic medicinal products, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, salicylates, anabolic steroids and sulfonamides.
The following substances may increase the Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) requirement: Oral contraceptives, thiazides, glucocorticoids, thyroid hormones, sympathomimetics, growth hormones and danazol.
Beta-blockers may mask the symptoms of hypoglycaemia.
Octreotide/lanreotide may either increase or decrease the Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) requirement.
Alcohol may intensify or reduce the hypoglycaemic effect of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy).
Pharmacokinetic interactions: In vitro data suggest that the potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions related to CYP interaction and protein binding is low for both liraglutide and insulin degludec.
The small delay of gastric emptying with liraglutide may influence absorption of concomitantly administered oral medicinal products. Interaction studies did not show any clinically relevant delay of absorption.
Warfarin and other coumarin derivatives: No interaction study has been performed. A clinically relevant interaction with active substances with poor solubility or with narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin cannot be excluded. Upon initiation of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) treatment in patients on warfarin or other coumarin derivatives more frequent monitoring of INR (International Normalised Ratio) is recommended.
No dose adjustment of liraglutide is required with concomitant use of paracetamol, atorvastatin, griseofulvin, digoxin, lisinopril and oral contraceptives (ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel).
Caution For Usage
Incompatibilities: Substances added to Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) may cause degradation of the active substances.
Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) must not be added to infusion fluids.
This medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products.
Special precautions for disposal and other handling: The pre-filled pen is designed to be used with NovoTwist or NovoFine injection needles up to a length of 8 mm and as thin as 32G.
The pre-filled pen is for use by one person only.
Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) must not be used if the solution does not appear clear and colourless.
Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) which has been frozen must not be used.
A new needle must always be attached before each use. Needles must not be re-used. The patient should discard the needle after each injection.
In the event of blocked needles, patients must follow the instructions described in the instructions for use, see overleaf.
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
For detailed instructions for use, see overleaf.
Storage
Special precautions for storage: Before first opening: Store in a refrigerator (2°C-8°C). Keep away from the freezing element. Do not freeze. Keep the cap on the pre-filled pen in order to protect from light.
After first opening: Store at a maximum of 30°C or store in a refrigerator (2°C-8°C). The product should be discarded 21 days after first opening. Do not freeze. Keep the cap on the pre-filled pen in order to protect from light.
Patient Counseling Information
Instructions on how to use Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) 100 units/ml + 3.6 mg/ml solution for injection: Please read these instructions carefully before using your Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) pre-filled pen.
Do not use the pen without proper training from your doctor or nurse.
Start by checking your pen to make sure that it contains Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) 100 units/ml + 3.6 mg/ml, then look at the illustrations below to get to know the different parts of your pen and needle.
If you are blind or have poor eyesight and cannot read the dose counter on the pen, do not use this pen without help. Get help from a person with good eyesight who is trained to use the Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) pre-filled pen.
Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is a medicine that contains insulin degludec and liraglutide. Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) is administered as 'dose steps'. One dose step contains 1 unit insulin degludec + 0.036 mg liraglutide.
Your pen is a pre-filled dial-a-dose pen. It contains 3 ml of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) solution. It delivers doses from: 1 dose step to a maximum of 50 dose steps (50 units insulin degludec + 1.8 mg liraglutide).
Your pen delivers doses in increments of 1 dose step.
Do not do any conversion of your dose. The dose steps dialled equal the number shown in the dose counter.
Your pen is designed to be used with NovoTwist or NovoFine disposable needles up to a length of 8 mm and as thin as 32G. Needles are not included in the pack.
Important information: Pay special attention to these notes as they are important for safe use of the pen.
1. Prepare your pen with a new needle: Check the name and coloured label of your pen, to make sure that it contains Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy). This is especially important if you take more than one type of injectable medicine. Taking the wrong medicine could be harmful to your health.
Pull off the pen cap.
Check that the solution in your pen is clear and colourless. Look through the pen window. If the solution looks cloudy, do not use the pen.
Take a new needle, and tear off the paper tab.
Push the needle straight onto the pen. Turn until it is on tight.
Pull off the outer needle cap and keep it for later. You will need it after the injection, to safely remove the needle from the pen.
Pull off the inner needle cap and throw it away. If you try to put it back on, you may accidentally stick yourself with the needle.
A drop of solution may appear at the needle tip. This is normal, but you must still check the flow.
Do not attach a new needle to your pen until you are ready to take your injection.
Always use a new needle for each injection.
This may prevent blocked needles, contamination, infection and inaccurate dosing.
Never use a bent or damaged needle.
2. Check the flow: Turn the dose selector to select 2 dose steps. Make sure the dose counter shows 2.
The dose counter and the dose pointer show how many dose steps of Insulin Degludec+Liraglutide (Xultophy) you select.
Hold the pen with the needle pointing up.
Tap the top of the pen gently a few times to let any air bubbles rise to the top.
Press and hold in the dose button until the dose counter returns to 0.
The 0 must line up with the dose pointer.
A drop of solution should appear at the needle tip.
A small drop may remain at the needle tip, but it will not be injected.
If no drop appears, repeat steps 2A to 2C up to 6 times. If there is still no drop, change the needle and repeat steps 2A to 2C once more.
If a drop of solution still does not appear, dispose of the pen and use a new one.
Always make sure that a drop appears at the needle tip before you inject. This makes sure that the solution flows.
If no drop appears, you will not inject any medicine, even though the dose counter may move. This may indicate a blocked or damaged needle.
It is important always to check the flow before you inject. If you do not check the flow, you may get too little medicine, or no medicine at all. This may lead to high blood sugar level.
3. Select your dose: Turn the dose selector to select the dose you need.
The dose counter shows the dose in dose steps.
If you select a wrong dose, you can turn the dose selector forward or backward to the correct dose.
The pen can dial up to a maximum of 50 dose steps.
The dose selector changes the number of dose steps.
Only the dose counter and dose pointer will show how many dose steps you select per dose.
You can select up to50 dose steps per dose. When your pen contains less than 50 dose steps, the dose counter stops at the number of dose steps left.
The dose selector clicks differently when turned forward, backward or past the number of dose steps left. Do not count the pen clicks.
Always use the dose counter and the dose pointer to see how many dose steps you have selected before injecting the medicine.
Do not count the pen clicks. If you select and inject the wrong dose, your blood sugar level may get high or low.
Do not use the pen scale, it only shows approximately how much solution is left in your pen.
4. Inject your dose: Insert the needle into your skin as your doctor or nurse has shown you.
Make sure you can see the dose counter. Do not cover it with your fingers. This could interrupt the injection.
Press and hold down the dose button until the dose counter shows 0.
The 0 must line up with the dose pointer. You may then hear or feel a click.
Keep the needle in your skin after the dose counter has returned to 0 and count slowly to 6.
If the needle is removed earlier, you may see a stream of solution coming from the needle tip. If so, the full dose will not be delivered, and you should increase the frequency of checking your blood sugar level.
Remove the needle from your skin.
If blood appears at the injection site, press lightly. Do not rub the area.
You may see a drop of solution at the needle tip after injecting. This is normal and does not affect your dose.
Always watch the dose counter to know how many dose steps you inject. Hold the dose button down until the dose counter shows 0. If the dose counter does not return to 0, the full dose has not been delivered, which may lead to high blood sugar level.
How to identify a blocked or damaged needle: If 0 does not appear in the dose counter after continuously pressing the dose button, you may have used a blocked or damaged needle. In this case, you have not received any medicine; even though the dose counter has moved from the original dose that you have set.
How to handle a blocked needle: Change the needle as described in section 5 and repeat all steps starting with section 1: Prepare your pen with a new needle. Make sure you select the full dose you need.
Never touch the dose counter when you inject. This can interrupt the injection.
5. After your injection: Lead the needle tip into the outer needle cap on a flat surface without touching the needle or the outer cap.
Once the needle is covered, carefully push the outer needle cap completely on.
Unscrew the needle and dispose of it carefully as instructed by your doctor or nurse.
Put the pen cap on your pen after each use to protect the solution from light.
Always dispose of the needle after each injection to ensure the use of a sharp needle and prevent blocked needles. If the needle is blocked, you will not inject any medicine.
When the pen is empty, throw it away without a needle on as instructed by your doctor, nurse, pharmacist or local authorities.
Never try to put the inner needle cap back on the needle. You may stick yourself with the needle.
Always remove the needle from your pen after each injection.
This may prevent blocked needles, contamination, infection, leakage of solution and inaccurate dosing.
How much solution is left: The pen scale shows you approximately how much solution is left in your pen.
To see precisely how much solution is left, use the dose counter: Turn the dose selector until the dose counter stops.
If it shows 50, at least 50 dose steps are left in your pen. If it shows less than 50, the number shown is the number of dose steps left in your pen.
If you need more medicine than what is left in your pen, you can split your dose between two pens.
Be very careful to calculate correctly if splitting your dose.
If in doubt, take the full dose with a new pen. If you split the dose wrongly, you will inject too little or too much medicine. This may make your blood sugar level high or low.
Further important information: Always keep an extra pen and new needles, in case of loss or damage.
Always keep your pen and needles out of sight and reach of others, especially children.
Never share your pen with other people. Your medicine might be harmful to their health.
Never share your needles with other people. It might lead to cross-infection.
Caregivers must be very careful when handling used needles - to prevent needle injury and cross-infection.
Caring for your pen: Do not leave the pen in a car or other place where it can get too hot or too cold.
Do not store your pen at temperatures above 30°C.
Do not expose your pen to dust, dirt or liquid.
Do not wash, soak or lubricate your pen. If necessary, clean it with mild detergent on a moistened cloth.
Do not drop your pen or knock it against hard surfaces.
If you drop it or suspect a problem, attach a new needle and check the flow before you inject.
Do not try to refill your pen. Once empty, it must be disposed of.
Do not try to repair your pen or pull it apart.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
A10AE56 - insulin degludec and liraglutide ; Belongs to the class of long-acting insulins and analogues for injection. Used in the treatment of diabetes.
Presentation/Packing
Soln for inj (pre-filled pen) (clear, colourless, isotonic) 100 u/mL + 3.6 mg/mL x 3 mL x 5's.
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