General: Celecoxib metabolism is predominantly mediated via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 in the liver. Patients who are known or suspected to be poor CYP2C9 metabolizers based on previous history/experience with other CYP2C9 substrates should be administered celecoxib with caution as they may have abnormally high plasma levels due to reduced metabolic clearance. Consider starting treatment at half the lowest recommended dose (see Dosage & Administration and Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics: Metabolism under Actions).
Concomitant administration of celecoxib with inhibitors of CYP2C9 can lead to increases in plasma concentrations of celecoxib. Therefore, a dose reduction of celecoxib may be necessary when celecoxib is co-administered with CYP2C9 inhibitors.
Concomitant administration of celecoxib with inducers of CYP2C9, such as rifampicin, carbamazepine and barbiturates can lead to decreases in plasma concentrations of celecoxib. Therefore, a dose increase of celecoxib may be necessary when celecoxib is co-administered with CYP2C9 inducers.
Clinical pharmacokinetics study and in vitro studies indicate that celecoxib, although not a substrate, is an inhibitor of CYP2D6. Therefore, there is a potential for an in vivo drug interaction with drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6.
Drug-specific: Interaction of Celecoxib with Warfarin or Similar Agents: (see Use with Oral Anticoagulants under Precautions).
Fluconazole and Ketoconazole: Concomitant administration of fluconazole at 200 mg once daily resulted in a 2-fold increase in celecoxib plasma concentration. This increase is due to the inhibition of celecoxib metabolism via CYP2C9 by fluconazole. Celecoxib should be introduced at half the recommended dose in patients receiving the CYP2C9 inhibitor fluconazole (see Dosage & Administration). Ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, showed no clinically relevant inhibition in the metabolism of celecoxib.
Anti-hypertensives including Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs), Angiotensin II Antagonists (also known as Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, [ARBs]), Diuretics and Beta-blockers: Inhibition of prostaglandins may diminish the effect of anti-hypertensives including ACEIs, and/or ARBs, diuretics and beta-blockers. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking celecoxib concomitantly with ACEIs and/or ARBs, diuretics and beta-blockers.
In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, co-administration of NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II antagonists or diuretics, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, the concomitant administration of these drugs should be done with caution. Patients should be adequately hydrated and the clinical need to monitor the renal function should be assessed at the beginning of the concomitant treatment and periodically thereafter.
Results from Lisinopril Study: In a 28-day clinical study in patients with lisinopril-controlled Stage I and II hypertension, administration of celecoxib 200 mg BID resulted in no clinically significant increases, when compared to placebo treatment, in mean daily systolic or diastolic blood pressure as determined using 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Among patients co-administered with celecoxib 200 mg BID, 48% were considered unresponsive to lisinopril at the final clinic visit (defined as either cuff diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg or cuff diastolic blood pressure increased >10% compared to baseline), compared to 27% of patients co-administered with placebo; this difference was statistically significant.
Cyclosporine: Because of their effect on renal prostaglandins, NSAIDs may increase the risk of nephrotoxicity with cyclosporine.
Dextromethorphan and Metoprolol: Concomitant administration of celecoxib 200 mg twice daily resulted in a 2.6-fold and a 1.5-fold increases in plasma concentrations of dextromethorphan and metoprolol (CYP2D6 substrates), respectively. These increases are due to celecoxib inhibition to the CYP2D6 substrate metabolism via CYP2D6. Therefore, the dose of drugs as CYP2D6 substrate may need to be reduced when treatment with celecoxib is initiated or increased when treatment with celecoxib is terminated (see Use with Oral Anticoagulants under Precautions).
Diuretics: Clinical studies have shown that NSAIDs, in some patients, can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides by inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.
Methotrexate: No pharmacokinetic and clinically important interactions have been observed in a clinical study between celecoxib and methotrexate.
Oral Contraceptives: In an interaction study, celecoxib had no clinically relevant effects on the pharmacokinetics of a prototype combination oral contraceptive (1 mg norethindrone/0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol).
Lithium: In healthy subjects, lithium plasma levels increased approximately 17% in subjects receiving lithium together with celecoxib. Patients on lithium treatment should be closely monitored when celecoxib is introduced or withdrawn.
Aspirin: Celecoxib does not interfere with the anti-platelet effect of low-dose aspirin (see GI Effects under Precautions). Because of its lack of platelet effects, celecoxib is not a substitute for aspirin in the prophylactic treatment of CV disease.
Other Drugs: No clinically important interactions have been observed with celecoxib and antacids (aluminum and magnesium), omeprazole, glibenclamide (glyburide), phenytoin, or tolbutamide.