Clopido

Clopido

clopidogrel

Manufacturer:

Laboratorios Lesvi S.L.

Distributor:

MD Pharm
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Clopidogrel bisulphate.
Description
Each film-coated tablet contains 75 mg of clopidogrel (as hydrogen sulphate).
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Each tablet contains 119.64 mg isomalt (E953).
Core: Isomalt (E953) Hydroxypropylcellulose; Low substituted hydroxypropylcellulose; Sucrose fatty acid ester.
Coating: Hypromellose (E464); Titanium dioxide (E171); Macrogol 400; Red iron oxide (E172).
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: platelet aggregation inhibitors excl. heparin. ATC Code: B01AC-04.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clopidogrel is a prodrug, one of whose metabolites is an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Clopidogrel must be metabolised by CYP450 enzymes to produce the active metabolite that inhibits platelet aggregation. The active metabolite of clopidogrel selectively inhibits the binding of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to its platelet P2Y12 receptor and the subsequent ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. Due to the irreversible binding, platelets exposed are affected for the remainder of their lifespan (approximately 7-10 days) and recovery of normal platelet function occurs at a rate consistent with platelet turnover. Platelet aggregation induced by agonists other than ADP is also inhibited by blocking the amplification of platelet activation by released ADP.
Because the active metabolite is formed by CYP450 enzymes, some of which are polymorphic or subject to inhibition by other drugs, not all patients will have adequate platelet inhibition.
Repeated doses of 75 mg per day produced substantial inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation from the first day; this increased progressively and reached steady state between Day 3 and Day 7. At steady state, the average inhibition level observed with a dose of 75 mg per day was between 40% and 60%. Platelet aggregation and bleeding time gradually returned to baseline values, generally within 5 days after treatment was discontinued.
The safety and efficacy of clopidogrel have been evaluated in 4 double-blind studies involving over 80,000 patients: the CAPRIE study, a comparison of clopidogrel to ASA, and the CURE, CLARITY and COMMIT studies comparing clopidogrel to placebo, both medicinal products given in combination with ASA and other standard therapy.
Recent myocardial infarction (Ml), recent stroke or established peripheral arterial disease: The CAPRIE study included 19,185 patients with atherothrombo­sis as manifested by recent myocardial infarction (<35 days), recent ischaemic stroke (between 7 days and 6 months) or established peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients were randomised to clopidogrel 75 mg/day or ASA 325 mg/day, and were followed for 1 to 3 years. In the myocardial infarction subgroup, most of the patients received ASA for the first few days following the acute myocardial infarction.
Clopidogrel significantly reduced the incidence of new ischaemic events (combined end point of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke and vascular death) when compared to ASA. In the intention to treat analysis, 939 events were observed in the clopidogrel group and 1,020 events with ASA (relative risk reduction (RRR) 8.7%, [95% CI: 0.2 to 16.4]; p 0.045), which corresponds, for every 1,000 patients treated for 2 years, to 10 [CI: 0 to 20] additional patients being prevented from experienc­ing a new ischaemic event. Analysis of total mortality as a secondary endpoint did not show any significant difference between clopidogrel (5.8%) and ASA (6.0%).
In a subgroup analysis by qualifying condition (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, and PAD) the benefit appeared to be strongest (achieving statistical significance at p = 0.003) in patients enrolled due to PAD (especially those who also had a history of myocardial infarction) (RRR = 23.7%; CI: 8.9 to 36.2) and weaker (not significantly different from ASA) in stroke patients (RRR = 7.3%; CI: -5.7 to 18.7 [p=0.258]). In patients who were enrolled in the trial on the sole basis of a recent myocardial infarction, clopidogrel was numerically inferior, but not statistically different from ASA (RRR = - 4.0%; CI: -22.5 to 11.7 [p=0.639]). In addition, a subgroup analysis by age suggested that the benefit of clopidogrel n patients over 75 years was less than that observed in patients ≤ 75 years.
Since the CAPRIE trial was not powered to evaluate efficacy of individual subgroups, it is not clear whether the differences in relative risk reduction across qualifying conditions are real, or a result of chance.
Acute coronary syndrome: The CURE study included 12,562 patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina or non-Q­ wave myocardial infarction), and presenting within 24 hours of onset of the most recent episode of chest pain or symptoms consistent with ischaemia. Patients were required to have either ECG changes compatible with new ischaemia or elevated cardiac enzymes or troponin I or T to least twice the upper limit of normal. Patients were randomised to clopidogrel (300 mg loading dose followed by 75 mg/ day, N=6,259) or placebo (N=6,303), both given in combination with ASA (75-325 mg once daily) and other standard therapies. Patients were treated for up to one year. In CURE, 823 (6.6%) patients received concomitant GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonist therapy. Heparins were adminis­tered in more than 90% of the patients and the relative rate of bleeding between clopidogrel and placebo was not significantly affected by the concomitant heparin therapy.
The number of patients experiencing the primary endpoint [cardiovascular (CV) death, myocardial infarction (Ml), or stroke] was 582 (9.3%) in the clopidogrel-treated group and 719 (11.4%) in the placebo-treated group, a 20% relative risk reduction (95% CI of 10%-28%; p=0.00009) for the clopidogrel­ treated group (17% relative risk reduction when patients were treated conservatively, 29% when they underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with or without stent and 10% when they underwent coronary artery bypass graft CABG)). New cardiovascular events (primary endpoint) were prevented, with relative risk reductions of 22% (CI: 8.6, 33.4), 32% (CI: 12.8, 46.4), 4% (CI: -26.9 , 26.7), 6% (CI: -33.5, 34.3) and 14% (CI: -31.6, 44.2), during the 0-1, 1-3, 3-6, 6-9 and 9-12 month study intervals, respectively. Thus, beyond 3 months of treatment, the benefit observed in the clopidogrel + ASA group was not further increased, whereas the risk of haemorrhage persisted (see Precautions).
The use of clopidogrel in CURE was associated with a decrease in the need of thrombolytic therapy (RRR = 43.3%; CI: 24.3%, 57.5%) and GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors (RRR = 18.2 %; CI: 6.5%, 28.3%).
The number of patients experiencing the co-primary endpoint (CV death, Ml, stroke or refractory ischaemia) was 1,035 (16.5%) in the clopidogrel-treated group and 1,187 (18.8%) in the placebo­ treated group, a 14% relative risk reduction (95% Cl of 6%-21%, p=0.0005) for the clopidogrel-treated group. This benefit was mostly driven by the statistically significant reduction in the incidence of Ml [287 (4.6%) in the clopidogrel treated group and 363 (5.8%) in the placebo treated group]. There was no observed effect on the rate of rehospitalisation for unstable angina.
The results obtained in populations with different characteristics (e.g. unstable angina or non-Q-wave Ml, low to high risk levels, diabetes, need for revascularisation, age, gender, etc.) were consistent with the results of the primary analysis. In particular, in a post-hoc analysis in 2,172 patients (17% of the total CURE population) who underwent stent placement (Stent-CURE), the data showed that clopidogrel compared to placebo, demon­strated a significant RRR of 26.2% favouring clopidogrel for the co-primary endpoint (CV death, MI, stroke) and also a significant RRR of 23.9% for the second co-primary endpoint (CV death, MI, stroke or refractory ischaemia). Moreover, the safety profile of clopidogrel in this subgroup of patients did not raise any particular concern. Thus, the results from this subset are in line with the overall trial results.
The benefits observed with clopirogrel were independent of other acute and long-term cardiovascular therapies (such as heparin/LMWH, GPIIb/IIIa antagonists, lipid lowering medicinal products, beta blockers, and ACE-inhibitors). The efficacy of clopidogrel was observed independently of the dose of ASA (75-325 mg once daily).
In patients with acute ST-segment elevation Ml, safety and efficacy of clopidogrel have been evaluated in 2 randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies, CLARITY and COMMIT.
The CLARITY trial included 3,491 patients presenting within 12 hours of the onset of a ST elevation MI and planned for thrombo­lytic therapy. Patients received clopidogrel (300 mg loading dose, followed by 75 mg/day, n=1,752) or placebo (n=1,739), both in combination with ASA (150 to 325 mg as a loading dose, followed by 75 to 162 mg/day), a fibrinolytic agent and, when appropriate, heparin. The patients were followed for 30 days. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of the composite of an occluded infarct-related artery on the predischarge angiogram, or death or recurrent Ml before coronary angiography. For patients who did not undergo angiography, the primary endpoint was death or recurrent myocardial infarction by Day 8 or by hospital discharge. The patient population included 19.7% women and 29.2% patients ≥65 years. A total of 99.7% of patients received fibrinolytics (fibrin specific: 68.7%, non-fibrin specific: 31.1%), 89.5% heparin, 78.7% beta blockers, 54.7% ACE inhibitors and 63% statins.
Fifteen percent (15.0%) of patients in the clopidogrel group and 21.7% in the placebo group reached the primary endpoint, representing an absolute reduction of 6.7% and a 36% odds reduction in favor of clopidogrel (95% CI: 24, 47%; p<0.001), mainly related to a reduction in occluded infarct-related arteries. This benefit was consistent across all prespecified subgroups including patients' age and gender, infarct location, and type of fibrinolytic or heparin used.
The 2x2 factorial design COMMIT trial included 45,852 patients presenting within 24 hours of the onset of the symptoms of suspected MI with supporting ECG abnormalities (i.e. ST elevation, ST depression or left bundle-branch block). Patients received clopidogrel (75 mg/day, n=22.961) or placebo (n=22,891), in combination with ASA (162 mg/day), for 28 days or until hospital discharge. The co-primary endpoints were death from any cause and the first occurrence of re-infarction, stroke or death. The population included 27.8% women, 58.4% patients ≥ 60 years (26% ≥ 70 years) and 54.5% patients who received fibrinolytics.
Clopidogrel significantly reduced the relative risk of death from any cause by 7% (p=0.029), and the relative risk of the combination of re-infarction, stroke or death by 9% (p=0.002), representing an absolute reduction of 0.5% and 0.9%, respectively. This benefit was consistent across age, gender and with or without fibrinloytics, and was observed as early as 24 hours.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: After single and repeated oral doses of 75 mg per day, clopidogrel is rapidly absorbed. Mean peak plasma levels of unchanged clopidogrel (approximately 2.2-2.5 ng/ml after a single 75 mg oral dose) occurred approximately 45 minutes after dosing. Absorption is at least 50%, based on urinary excretion of clopidogrel metabolites.
Distribution: Clopidogrel and the main circulating (inactive) metabolite bind reversibly in vitro to human plasma proteins (98% and 94% respectively). The binding is non-saturable in vitro over a wide concentration range.
Metabolism: Clopidogrel is extensively metabolised by the liver. In vitro and in vivo, clopidogrel is metabolised according to two main metabolic pathways: one mediated by esterases and leading to hydrolysis into its inactive carboxylic acid derivative (85% of circulating metabolites), and one mediated by multiple cytochromes P450. Clopidogrel is first metabolised to a 2-oxo-clopidogrel intermediate metabolite. Subsequent metabolism of the 2-oxo-clopidogrel intermediate metabolite results in formation of the active metabolite, a thiol derivative of clopidogrel. In vitro, this metabolic pathway is mediated by CYP3A4, CYP2Cl9, CYP1A2 and CYP2B6. The active thiol metabolite which has been isolated in vitro, binds rapidly and irreversibly to platelet receptors, thus inhibiting platelet aggregation.
The Cmax of the active metabolite is twice as high following a single 300-mg clopidogrel loading dose as it is after four days of 75-mg maintenance dose. Cmax occurs approximately 30 to 60 minutes after dosing.
Elimination: Following an oral dose of 14C-labelled clopidogrel in man, approximately 50% was excreted in the urine and approximately 46% in the faeces in the 120-hour interval after dosing. After a single oral dose of 75 mg, clopidogrel has a half-life of approximately 6 hours. The elimination half-life of the main circulating (inactive) metabolite was 8 hours after single and repeated administration.
Pharmacogenetics: CYP2C19 is involved in the formation of both the active metabolite and the 2-oxo-clopidogrel intermediate metabolite. Clopidogrel active metabolite pharmacokinetics and anti-platelet effects, as measured by ex vivo platelet aggregation assays, differ according to CYP2C19 genotype.
The CYP2C19*1 allele corresponds to fully functional metabolism while the CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 alleles are nonfunctional. The CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 alleles account for the majority of reduced function alleles in Caucasian (85%) and Asian (99%) poor metabolisers. Other alleles associated with absent or reduced metabolism are less frequent and include CYP2C19*4, *5, *6, *7, and *8. A patient with poor metaboliser status will possess two loss-of-function alleles as defined from the previous texts. Published frequencies for the poor CYP2C19 metaboliser genotypes are approximately 2% for Caucasians, 4% for Blacks and 14% for Chinese. Tests are available to determine a patient's CYP2C19 genotype.
A crossover study in 40 healthy subjects, 10 each in the four CYP2C19 metaboliser groups (ultrarapid, extensive, intermediate and poor), evaluated pharmacokinetic and antiplatelet responses using 300 mg followed by 75 mg/day and 600 mg followed by 150 mg/day, each for a total of 5 days (steady state). No substantial differences in active metabolite exposure and mean inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) were observed between ultrarapid , extensive and intermediate metabolisers. In poor metabolisers, active metabolite exposure was decreased by 63-71% compared to extensive metabolisers. After the 300 mg/75 mg dose regimen, antiplatelet responses were decreased in the poor metabolisers with mean IPA (5µM ADP) of 24% (24 hours) and 37% (Day 5) as compared to IPA of 39% (24 hours) and 58% (Day 5) in the extensive metabolisers and 37% (24 hours) and 60% (Day 5) in the intermediate metabolisers. When poor metabolisers received the 600 mg/150 mg regimen, active metabolite exposure was greater than with the 300 mg/75 mg regimen. In addition, IPA was 32% (24 hours) and 61% (Day 5), which were greater than in the poor metabolisers receiving the 300 mg/75 mg regimen, and were similar to the other CYP2C19 metaboliser groups receiving the 300 mg/75 mg regimen. An appropriate dose regimen for this patient population has not been established in clinical outcome trials.
Consistent with the previously mentioned results, in a meta-analysis including 6 studies of 335 clopidogrel-treated subjects at a steady state, it was shown that active metabolite exposure was decreased by 28% for intermediate metabolisers, and 72% for poor metabolisers while platelet aggregation inhibition (5 µM ADP) was decreased with differences in IPA of 5.9% and 21.4% respectively, when compared to extensive metabolisers.
The influence of CYP2C19 genotype on clinical outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel has not been evaluated in prospective, randomised, controlled trials. There have been a number of retrospective analyses, however, to evaluate this effect in patients treated with clopidogrel for whom there are genotyping results: CURE (n=2721), CHARISMA (n=2428), CLARITY-TIMI 28 (n=227), TRITON-TIMI 38 (n=1477), and ACTIVE-A (n=601), as well as a number of published cohort studies.
In TRITON-TIMI 38 and 3 of cohort studies (Collet, Sibbing, Giusti) the combined group of patients with ether intermediate or poor metaboliser status had a higher rate of cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) or stent thrombosis compared to extensive metabolisers.
In CHARISMA and one cohort study (Simon), an increased event rate was observed only in poor metaboliser compare to extensive metabolisers.
In CURE, CLARITY, ACTIVE-A and one of the cohort studies (Trenk), no increased event rate was observed based on metabolizer status.
None of these analyses were adequately sized to detect difference in outcome in poor metabolisers.
Special populations: The pharmacokinetics of the active metabolite of clopidogrel is not known in these special populations.
Renal impairment: After repeated doses of 75 mg clopidogrel per day in subjects with severe renal disease (creatinine clearance from 5 to 15 ml/ min), inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was lower (25%) than that observed in healthy subjects, however, the prolongation of bleeding time was similar to that seen in healthy subjects receiving 75 mg of clopidogrel per day. In addition, clinical tolerance was good in all patients.
Hepatic impairment: After repeated doses of 75 mg clopidogrel per day for 10 days in patients with severe hepatic impairment, inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation was similar to that observed in healthy subjects. The mean bleeding time prolongation was also similar in the two groups.
Race: The prevalence of CYP2C19 alleles that result in intermediate and poor CYP2C19 metabolism differs according to race/ethnicity (see previously mentioned in Pharmacogenetics). From literature, limited date in Asian populations are available to assess the clinical implication of genotyping of this CYP on clinical outcome events.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: During non clinical studies in rat and baboon, the most frequently observed effects were liver changes. These occurred at doses representing at least 25 times the exposure seen in humans receiving the clinical dose of 75 mg/day and were a consequence of an effect on hepatic metabolising enzymes. No effect on hepatic metabolising enzymes was observed in humans receiving clopidogrel at the therapeutic dose.
At very high doses, a poor gastric tolerability (gastritis, gastric erosions, and/or vomiting) of clopidogrel was also reported in rat and baboon.
There was no evidence of carcinogenic effect when clopidogrel was administered for 78 weeks to mice and 104 weeks to rats when given at doses up to 77 mg/kg per day (representing at least 25 times the exposure seen in humans receiving the clinical dose of 75 mg/day).
Clopidogrel has been tested in range of in vitro genotoxicity studies, and showed no genotoxic activity.
Clopidogrel was found to have no effect on the fertility of male and female rats and was not teratogenic in either rats or rabbits. When given to lactating rats, clopidogrel caused a slight delay in the development of the offspring. Specific pharmacokinetic studies performed with radiolabeled clopidogrel have shown that the parent compound or its metabolites are excreted in the milk. Consequently, a direct effect (slight toxicity), or an indirect effect (low palatability) cannot be excluded.
Indications/Uses
Clopidogrel is indicated in adults for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in: Patients suffering from myocardial infarction (from a few days until less than 35 days), ischaemic stroke (from 7 days until less than 6 months) or established peripheral arterial disease.
Patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome: Non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction), including patents undergoing a stent placement following percutaneous coronary intervention, in combination with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA).
ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction, in combination with ASA in medically treated patients eligible for thrombolytic therapy.
For further information please refer to Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Adults and elderly: Clopidogrel should be given as a single dose of 75 mg with or without food.
In patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome: Non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction): clopidogrel treatment should be initiated with a single 300-mg loading dose and then continued at 75 mg once a day (with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 75 mg-325 mg daily). Since higher doses of ASA were associated with higher bleeding risk it is recommended that the dose of ASA should not be higher than 100 mg. The optimal duration of treatment has not been formally established. Clinical trial data support use up to 12 months, and the maximum benefit was seen at 3 months. (See Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction: clopidogrel should be given as a single daily dose of 75 mg initiated with a 300-mg loading dose in combination with ASA and with or without thrombolytics. For patients over 75 years of age clopidogrel should be initiated without a loading dose. Combined therapy should be started as early as possible after symptoms start and continued for at least four weeks. The benefit of the combination of clopidogrel with ASA beyond four weeks has not been studied in this setting. (See Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
Pharmacogenetics: CYP2C19 poor metaboliser status is associated with diminished response to clopidogrel. The optimal dose regimen for poor metabolisers has yet to be determined (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Paediatric patients: The safety and efficacy of clopidogrel in children and adolescents have not yet been established.
Renal impairment: Therapeutic experience is limited in patients with renal impairment (see Precautions).
Hepatic impairment: Therapeutic experience is limited in patients with moderate hepatic disease who may have bleeding diatheses (see Precautions).
Overdosage
Overdose following clopidogrel administration may lead to prolonged bleeding time and subsequent bleeding complications. Appropriate therapy should be considered if bleedings are observed.
No antidote to the pharmacological activity of clopidogrel has been found. If prompt correction of prolonged bleeding time is required, platelet transfusion may reverse the effects of clopidogrel. 
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients.
Severe liver impairment.
Active pathological bleeding such as peptic ulcer or intracranial haemorrhage.
Breast-feeding.
Special Precautions
Bleeding and haematological disorders: Due to the risk of bleeding and haematological adverse reactions, blood cell count determination and/or other appropriate testing should be promptly considered whenever clinical symptoms suggestive of bleeding arise during the course of treatment (see Adverse Reactions). As with other antiplatelet agents, clopidogrel should be used with caution in patients who may be at risk of increased bleeding from trauma, surgery or other pathological conditions and in patients receiving treatment with ASA, heparin, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including Cox-2 inhibitors. Patients should be followed carefully for any signs of bleeding including occult bleeding, especially during the first weeks of treatment and/or after invasive cardiac procedures or surgery. The concomitant administration of clopidogrel with oral anticoagulants is not recommended since it may increase the intensity of bleedings (see Interactions).
If a patient is to undergo elective surgery and antiplatelet effect is temporarily not desirable, clopidogrel should be discontinued 7 days prior to surgery. Patients should inform physicians and dentists that they are taking clopidogrel before any surgery is scheduled and before any new medicinal product is taken. Clopidogrel prolongs bleeding time and should be used with caution in patients who have lesions with a propensity to bleed (particularly gastrointestinal and intraocular).
Patients should be told that it might take longer than usual to stop bleeding when they take clopidogrel (alone or in combination with ASA), and that they should report any unusual bleeding (site or duration) to their physician.
Acquired Haemophilia: Acquired haemophilia has been reported following use of clopidogrel. In cases of confirmed isolated activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) prolongation with or without bleeding, acquired haemophilia should be considered. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acquired haemophilia should be managed and treated by specialist, and clopidogrel should be discontinued.
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP): Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) has been reported very rarely following the use of clopidogrel, sometimes after a short exposure. It is characterised by thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia associated with either neurological findings, renal dysfunction or fever. TTP is a potentially fatal condition requiring prompt treatment including plasmapheresis.
Recent ischaemic stroke In view of the lack of data, clopidogrel cannot be recommended during the first 7 days after acute ischaemic stroke.
Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19): Pharmacogenetics: Based on literature data, patients with genetically reduced CYP2C19 function have lower systemic exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel and diminished antiplatelet responses, and generally exhibit higher cardiovascular event rates following myocardial infarction than do patients with normal CYP2C19 function. (See Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Since clopidogrel is metabolised to its active metabolite partly by CYP2C19, use of medicinal products that inhibit the activity of this enzyme would be expected to result in reduced drug levels of the active metabolite of clopidogrel. The clinical relevance of this interaction is uncertain. As a precaution concomitant use of medicinal products that inhibit CYP2C19 should be discouraged (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions and Interactions for a list of CYP2C19 inhibitors).
Renal impairment: Therapeutic experience with clopidogrel is limited in patients with renal impairment. Therefore clopidogrel should be used with caution in these patients (see Dosage and Administration.)
Hepatic impairment: Experience is limited in patients with moderate hepatic disease who may have bleeding diatheses. Clopidogrel should therefore be used with caution in this population (see Dosage & Administration.)
Excipients: Clopido Tablet contains isomalt. Patients with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance should not take this medicine.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Clopidogrel has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
As no clinical data on exposure to clopidogrel during pregnancy are available, it is preferable not to use clopidogrel during pregnancy as a precautionary measure.
Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to pregnancy, embryonal/foetal development, parturition or postnatal development (see Pharmacology: Toxicology under Actions).
It is unknown whether clopidogrel is excreted in human breast milk. Animal studies have shown excretion of clopidogrel in breast milk. As a precautionary measure, breast-feeding should not be continued during treatment with Clopido Tablet.
Clopidogrel was not shown to alter fertility in animal studies.
Adverse Reactions
Clopidogrel has been evaluated for safety in more than 42,000 patients who have participated in clinical studies, including over 9,000 patients treated for 1 year or more. The clinically relevant adverse reactions observed in the CAPRIE, CURE, CLARITY and COMMIT studies are discussed as follows. Overall, clopidogrel 75 mg/day was comparable to ASA 325 mg/day in CAPRIE regard­less of age, gender and race. In addition to clinical studies experience, adverse reactions have been spontaneously reported.
Bleeding is the most common reaction reported both in clinical studies as well as in post-marketing experience where it was mostly reported during the first month of treatment.
In CAPRIE, in patients treated with either clopidogrel or ASA, the overall incidence of any bleeding was 9.3%. The incidence of severe cases was 1.4% for clopidogrel and 1.6% for ASA.
In CURE, the major bleeding event rate for clopidogrel+ASA was dose-dependent on ASA (<100mg: 2.6%; 100-200mg: 3.5%; >200mg: 4.9%) as was the major bleeding event rate for placebo+ASA (<100mg: 2.0%; 100-200mg: 2.3%; >200mg: 4.0%). The risk of bleeding (life-threatening, major, minor, other) decreased during the course of the trial: 0-1 months (clopidogrel: 9.6%; placebo: 6.6%), 1-3 months (clopidogrel: 4.5%; placebo: 2.3%), 3-6 months (clopidogrel: 3.8%; placebo: 1.6%), 6-9 months (clopidogrel: 3.2%; placebo: 1.5%), 9-12 months (clopidogrel: 1.9%; placebo: 1.0%). There was no excess in major bleeds with clopidogrel + ASA within 7 days after coronary bypass graft surgery in patients who stopped therapy more than five days prior to surgery (4.4% clopidogrel+ASA vs. 5.3% placebo+ASA). In patients who remained on therapy within five days of bypass graft surgery, the event rate was 9.6% for clopidogrel+ASA , and 6.3% for placebo+ASA.
In CLARITY, there was an overall increase in bleeding in the clopidogrel + ASA group (17.4%) vs. the placebo + ASA group (12.9%). The incidence of major bleeding was similar between groups (1.3% versus 1.1% for the clopidogrel + ASA and the placebo + ASA groups, respectively). This was consistent across subgroups of patients defined by baseline characteristics, and type of fibrinolytic or heparin therapy.
In COMMIT, the overall rate of noncerebral major bleeding or cerebral bleeding was low and similar in both groups (0.6% versus 0.5% in the clopidogrel + ASA and the placebo + ASA groups, respectively).
Adverse reactions that occurred either during clinical studies or that were spontaneously reported are presented in the table as follows. Their frequency is defined using the following conventions: common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000); very rare (<1/10,000). Within each system organ class, adverse drug reactions are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. (See table.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image
Drug Interactions
Oral anticoagulants: The concomitant administration of clopidogrel with oral anticoagulants is not recommended since it may increase the intensity of bleedings (see Precautions).
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors: Clopidogrel should be used with caution in patients who receive concomitant glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (see Precautions).
Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA): ASA did not modify the clopidogrel-mediated inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, but clopidogrel potentiated the effect of ASA on collagen-induced platelet aggregation. However, concomitant administration of 500 mg of ASA twice a day for one day did not significantly increase the prolongation of bleeding time induced by clopidogrel intake. A pharmacodynamic interaction between clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid is possible, leading to increased risk of bleeding. Therefore, concomitant use should be undertaken with caution (see Precautions). However, clopidogrel and ASA have been administered together for up to one year (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
Heparin: In a clinical study conducted in healthy subjects, clopidogrel did not necessitate modification of the heparin dose or alter the effect of heparin on coagulation. Co-administration of heparin had no effect on the inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by clopidogrel. A pharmacodynamic interaction between clopidogrel and heparin is possible, leading to increased risk of bleeding. Therefore, concomitant use should be undertaken with caution. (See Precautions).
Thrombolytics: The safety of the concomitant administration of clopidogrel, fibrin or non-fibrin specific thrombolytic agents and heparins was assessed in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The incidence of clinically significant bleeding was similar to that observed when thrombolytic agents and heparin are co-administered with ASA (see Adverse Reactions).
NSAIDs: In a clinical study conducted in healthy volunteers, the concomi­tant administration of clopidogrel and naproxen increased occult gastrointestinal blood loss. However, due to the lack of interac­tion studies with other NSAIDs it is presently unclear whether there is an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding with all NSAIDs. Consequently, NSAIDs including Cox-2 inhibitors and clopidogrel should be co-administered with caution (see Precautions).
CYP2C8 substrate drugs: Clopidogrel has been shown to increase repaglinide exposure in healthy volunteers. In vitro studies have shown the increase in repaglinide exposure is due to inhibition of CYP2C8 by the glucuronide metabolite of clopidogrel. Due to the risk of increased plasma concentrations, concomitant administration of clopidogrel and drugs primarily cleared by CYP2C8 metabolism (e.g., repaglinide, paclitaxel) should be undertaken with caution.
Other concomitant therapy: Since clopidogrel is metabolised to its active metabolite by CYP2C19, use of medicinal products that inhibit the activity of this enzyme would be expected to result in reduced drug levels of the active metabolite of clopidogrel. The clinical relevance of this interaction is uncertain. As a precaution concomitant use of medicinal products that inhibit CYP2C19 should be discouraged (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions and Precautions).
Medicinal products that inhibit CYP2C19 include omeprazole and esomeprazole, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, moclobemide, voricona­zole, fluconazole, ticlopidine, ciprofloxacin, cimetidine, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and chloramphenicol.
Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI): In a crossover clinical study, clopidogrel (300-mg loading dose followed by 75 mg/day) alone and with omeprazole (80 mg at the same time as clopidogrel) were administered for 5 days. The exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel was decreased by 45% (Day 1) and 40% (Day 5) when clopidogrel and omepra­zole were administered together. Mean inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) with 5µm ADP was diminished by 39% (24 hours) and 21% (Day 5) when clopidogrel and omeprazole were administered together. In another study it was shown that admin­istering clopidogrel and omeprazole 12 hours apart did not prevent their interaction that is likely to be driven by the inhibitory effect of omeprazole on CYP2C19. Esomeprazole is expected to give a similar interaction with clopidogrel.
Inconsistent data on the clinical implications of this pharmacoki­netic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) interaction in terms of major cardiovascular events have been reported from both observa­tional and clinical studies. As a precaution, concomitant use of omeprazole or esomeprozole should be discouraged (see Precautions).
Less pronounced reductions of metabolite exposure has been observed with pantoprazole or lansoprazole. The plasma concen­trations of the active metabolite was 20% reduced (loading dose) and 14% reduced (maintenance dose) during concomitant treatment with pantoprazole 80 mg once daily. This was associ­ated with a reduction of the mean inhibition of platelet aggrega­tion by 15% and 11%, respectively. These results indicate that clopidogrel can be administered with pantoprazole.
There is no evidence that other medicinal products that reduce stomach acid such as H2 blockers (except cimetidine which is a CYP2C19 inhibitor) or antacids interfere with antiplatelet activity of clopidrogrel.
Other medicinal products: A number of other clinical studies have been conducted with clopidogrel and other concomitant medicinal products to investi­gate the potential for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions. No clinically significant pharmacodynamic interac­tions were observed when clopidogrel was co-administered with atenolol, nifedipine, or both atenolol and nifedipine. Furthermore, the pharmacodynamic activity of clopidogrel was not significantly influenced by the co-administrat on of phenobarbital or oestrogen.
The pharmacokinetics of digoxin or theophylline were not modified by the co-administration of clopidogrel. Antacids did not modify the extent of clopidogrel absorption.
Data from the CAPRIE study indicate that phenytoin and tolbutamide can be safely co-administered with clopidogrel.
Apart from the specific medicinal product interaction information previously described, interaction studies with clopidogrel and some medicinal products commonly administered in patients with atherothrombotic disease have not been performed. However, patients entered into clinical trials with clopidogrel received a variety of concomitant medicinal products including diuretics, beta blockers, ACEI, calcium antagonists, cholesterol lowering agents, coronary vasodilators, antidiabetic agents (including insulin), antiepileptic agents, and GPIIb/IIa antagonists without evidence of clinically significant adverse interactions.
Caution For Usage
Special precautions for disposal: Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Incompatibilities: Not applicable.
Storage
Store below 30°C. Protect from Light.
Shelf-life: 3 years.
ATC Classification
B01AC04 - clopidogrel ; Belongs to the class of platelet aggregation inhibitors excluding heparin. Used in the treatment of thrombosis.
Presentation/Packing
FC tab 75 mg (pink, round, biconvex) x 28's.
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