Levin

Levin

levofloxacin

Manufacturer:

Hetero Labs

Distributor:

Medicell Pharma
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Levofloxacin.
Description
Levin-250: Each film coated tablet contains: 256.24 mg of levofloxacin hemihydrate eq. to 250 mg of levofloxacin.
Levin-500: Each film coated tablet contains: 512.47 mg of levofloxacin hemihydrate eq. to 500 mg of levofloxacin.
Levofloxacin is a synthetic broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for oral and intravenous administration. Chemically, Levofloxacin, a chiral fluorinated carboxyquinolone, is the pure (-)-(S)-enantiomer of the racemic drug substance levofloxacin. The chemical name is (-)-(S)-9-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-7-oxo-7H-pyrido[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazine-6-carboxylic acid hemihydrate.
The empirical formula is C18H20FN3O4 • ½ H2O and the molecular weight is 370.38. Levofloxacin is a light yellowish-white to yellow-white crystal or crystalline powder. The molecule exists as a zwitterion at the pH conditions in the small intestine.
The data demonstrate that from pH 0.6 to 5.8, the solubility of levofloxacin is essentially constant (approximately 100 mg/mL). Levofloxacin is considered soluble to freely soluble in this pH range, as defined by USP nomenclature. Above pH 5.8, the solubility increases rapidly to its maximum at pH 6.7 (272 mg/mL) and is considered freely soluble in this range. Above pH 6.7, the solubility decreases and reaches a minimum value (about 50 mg/mL) at a pH of approximately 6.9. Levofloxacin has the potential to form stable coordination compounds with many metal ions. This in vitro chelation potential has the following formation order: Al+3 > Cu+2 > Zn+2 > Mg+2 > Ca+2.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Cellulose Microcrystalline, Croscarmellose sodium, Povidone k-30, Magnesium stearate and Opadry pink 13B84505.
Action
Pharmacology: Mechanism of Action: Levofloxacin is the L-isomer of the racemate, ofloxacin, a quinolone antimicrobial agent. The antibacterial activity of ofloxacin resides primarily in the L-isomer. The mechanism of action of levofloxacin and other fluoroquinolone antimicrobials involves inhibition of bacterial topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase (both of which are type II topoisomerases), enzymes required for DNA replication, transcription, repair and recombination.
Clinical Studies: Community Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia: Adults inpatients and outpatients with a diagnosis of Community Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia were evaluated in two pivotal clinical studies. In the first study, 590 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multi center unblinded randomized trail comparing levofloxacin 500 mg once daily orally or intravenously for 7 to 14 days to ceftriaxone 1 to 2 grams intravenously once or in equally divided doses twice daily followed by cefuroxime axetil 500 mg orally twice daily for a total of 7 to 14 days. Patients assigned to treatment with the control regimen were allowed to receive erythromycin (or doxycycline if intolerant of erythromycin) if an infection due to atypical pathogens was suspected or proven. Clinical and microbiological evaluations were performed during treatment, 5 to 7 days posttherapy, and 3 to 4 weeks posttherapy. Clinical success (cure plus improvement) with levofloxacin at 5 to 7 days posttherapy, the primary efficacy variable in this study, was superior (95%) to the control group (83%). [95% CI of -19, -6]. In the second study 264 patients were enrolled in a prospective, multi center, non-comparative trial of 500 mg levofloxacin administered orally or intravenously once daily for 7 to 14 days. Clinical success for clinically evaluable patients was 93%. For both studies, the clinical success rate in patients with atypical pneumonia due to Chlamydia pneumoniae. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila were 96%, 96%, and 70%, respectively. (See Table 1.)

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Additional studies were initiated to evaluated the utility of levofloxacin in community acquired pneumonia, with particular interest in penicillin-resistant strains (MIC value for penicillin ≥ 2μg/mL). In addition to the studies previously discussed. Inpatients and outpatients with mild to severe community acquired pneumonia were evaluated in six additional clinical studies: one double blind study, two open label randomized studies, and three open label non-comparative studies. The total number of clinically evaluable patients with S. pneumoniae across all 6 studies was 250 for levofloxacin 41 for comparators. The Clinical success rate (cured or improved) among the 250 levofloxacin treated patients with S. pneumoniae was 245/250 (98%). The Clinical success rate among the 41 comparator-treated patients with S. pneumoniae was 39/41(95%). Across these 6 studies, 18 levofloxacin treated and 4 non quinolone comparator treated patients with community acquired pneumonia due to penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (MIC value for penicillin ≥ 2 μg/mL) were identified, of the 18 levofloxacin treated patients, 15 were evaluable following the completion of therapy, fifteen out of the 15 evaluable levofloxacin treated patients with community acquired pneumonia due to penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae achieved clinical success (cure or improvement). Of these 15 patients, 6 were bacterial and 5 were classified as having severe disease. Of the 4 comparator treated patients with community acquired pneumonia due to penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, 3 were evaluable for clinical efficacy. Three out of the 3 evaluable comparator treated patients achieved clinical success. All three of the comparator treated patients were bacteria and had disease classified as severe.
Nosocomial Pneumonia: Adult patients with clinically and radiologically documented nosocomial pneumonia were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, open-label study comparing intravenous levofloxacin (750 mg once daily) followed by oral levofloxacin (750 mg once daily) for a total of 7-15 days to intravenous imipenem/cilastatin (500-1000 mg every 6-8 hours daily) followed by oral ciprofloxacin (750 mg every 12 hours daily) for a total of 7-15 days. Levofloxacin-treated patients received an average of 7 days of intravenous therapy (range: 1-16 days); comparator-treated patients received an average of 8 days of intravenous therapy (range: 1-19 days).
Overall, in the clinically and microbiologically evaluable population, adjunctive therapy was empirically initiated at study entry in 56 of 93 (60.2%) patients in the levofloxacin arm and 53 of 94 (56.4%) patients in the comparator arm. The average duration of adjunctive therapy was 7 days in the levofloxacin arm and 7 days in the comparator. In clinically and microbiologically evaluable patients with documented Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, 15 of 17 (88.2%) received ceftazidime (N=11) or piperacillin/tazobactam (N=4) in the levofloxacin arm and 16 of 17 (94.1%) received an aminoglycoside in the comparator arm. Overall, in clinically and microbiologically evaluable patients, vancomycin was added to the treatment regimen of 37 of 93 (39.8%) patients in the levofloxacin arm and 28 of 94 (29.8%) patients in the comparator arm for suspected methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection.
Clinical success rates in clinically and microbiologically evaluable patients at the post-therapy visit (primary study endpoint assessed on day 3-15 after completing therapy) were 58.1% for levofloxacin and 60.6% for comparator. The 95% CI for the difference of response rates (levofloxacin minus comparator) was [-17.2, 12.0]. The microbiological eradication rates at the posttherapy visit were 66.7% for levofloxacin and 60.6% for comparator. The 95% CI for the difference of eradication rates (levofloxacin minus comparator) was [-8.3, 20.3]. Clinical success and microbiological eradication rates by pathogen are detailed as follows. (See Table 2.)

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Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Three hundred ninety-nine patients were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, comparative study for complicated skin and skin structure infections. The patients were randomized to receive either levofloxacin 750 mg once daily (IV followed by oral), or an approved comparator for a median of 10 ± 4.7 days. As is expected in complicated skin and skin structure infections, surgical procedures were performed in the levofloxacin and comparator groups. Surgery (incision and drainage or debridement) was performed on 45% of the levofloxacin-treated patients and 44% of the comparator-treated patients, either shortly before or during antibiotic treatment and formed an integral part of therapy for this indication. Among those who could be evaluated clinically 2-5 days after completion of study drug, overall success rates (improved or cured) were 116/138 (84.1%) for patients treated with levofloxacin and 106/132 (80.3%) for patients treated with the comparator.
Success rates varied with the type of diagnosis ranging from 68% in patients with infected ulcers to 90% in patients with infected wounds and abscesses. These rates were equivalent to those seen with comparator drugs.
Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis: Adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of prostatitis and microbiological culture results from urine sample collected after prostatic massage (VB3) or expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) specimens obtained via the Meares-Stamey procedure were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind study comparing oral levofloxacin 500 mg, once daily for a total of 28 days to oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg, twice daily for a total of 28 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was microbiologic efficacy in microbiologically evaluable patients. A total of 136 and 125 microbiologically evaluable patients were enrolled in the levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin groups, respectively. The microbiologic eradication rate by patient infection at 5-18 days after completion of therapy was 75.0% in the levofloxacin group and 76.8% in the ciprofloxacin group (95% CI [-12.58, 8.98] for levofloxacin minus ciprofloxacin). The overall eradication rates for pathogens of interest are presented as follows. (See Table 3.)

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Eradication rates for S. epidermidis when found with other co-pathogens are consistent with rates seen in pure isolates. Clinical success (cure + improvement with no need for further antibiotic therapy) rates in microbiologically evaluable population 5-18 days after completion of therapy were 75.0% for levofloxacin-treated patients and 72.8% for ciprofloxacin-treated patients (95% CI [-8.87, 13.27] for levofloxacin minus ciprofloxacin). Clinical long-term success (24-45 days after completion of therapy) rates were 66.7% for the levofloxacin-treated patients and 76.9% for the ciprofloxacin-treated patients (95% CI [-23.40, 2.89] for levofloxacin minus ciprofloxacin).
Pharmacokinetics: The mean ±SD pharmacokinetic parameters of levofloxacin determined under single and steady-state conditions following oral tablet doses of Levofloxacin.
Absorption: Levofloxacin is rapidly and essentially completely absorbed after oral administration. Peak plasma concentrations are usually attained one to two hours after oral dosing. The absolute bioavailability of levofloxacin from a 500 mg tablet and a 750 mg tablet of levofloxacin are both approximately 99%, demonstrating complete oral absorption of levofloxacin.
Levofloxacin pharmacokinetics are linear and predictable after single and multiple oral dosing regimens. Steady-state conditions are reached within 48 hours following a 500 mg or 750 mg once-daily dosage regimen. The mean ±SD peak and trough plasma concentrations attained following multiple once-daily oral dosage regimens were approximately 5.7 ±1.4 and 0.5 ±0.2 mcg/mL after the 500 mg doses, and 8.6 ±1.9 and 1.1 ±0.4 mcg/mL after the 750 mg doses, respectively. Oral administration of a 500 mg dose of levofloxacin with food prolongs the time to peak concentration by approximately 1 hour and decreases the peak concentration by approximately 14%. Therefore, levofloxacin Tablets can be administered without regard to food.
Distribution: The mean volume of distribution of levofloxacin generally ranges from 74 to 112 L after single and multiple 500 mg or 750 mg doses, indicating widespread distribution into body tissues. Levofloxacin reaches its peak levels in skin tissues and in blister fluid of healthy subjects at approximately 3 hours after dosing. The skin tissue biopsy to plasma AUC ratio is approximately 2 and the blister fluid to plasma AUC ratio is approximately 1 following multiple once-daily oral administration of 750 mg and 500 mg doses of Levofloxacin respectively, to healthy subjects. Levofloxacin also penetrates well into lung tissues. Lung tissue concentrations were generally 2- to 5-fold higher than plasma concentrations and ranged from approximately 2.4 to 11.3 mcg/g over a 24-hour period after a single 500 mg oral dose.
In vitro, over a clinically relevant range (1 to 10 mcg/mL) of serum/plasma levofloxacin concentrations, levofloxacin is approximately 24 to 38% bound to serum proteins across all species studied, as determined by the equilibrium dialysis method. Levofloxacin is mainly bound to serum albumin in humans. Levofloxacin binding to serum proteins is independent of the drug concentration.
Metabolism: Levofloxacin is stereochemically stable in plasma and urine and does not invert metabolically to its enantiomer, D-ofloxacin. Levofloxacin undergoes limited metabolism in humans and is primarily excreted as unchanged drug in the urine. Following oral administration, approximately 87% of an administered dose was recovered as unchanged drug in urine within 48 hours, whereas less than 4% of the dose was recovered in feces in 72 hours. Less than 5% of an administered dose was recovered in the urine as the desmethyl and N-oxide metabolites, the only metabolites identified in humans. These metabolites have little relevant pharmacological activity.
Excretion: Levofloxacin is excreted largely as unchanged drug in the urine. The mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of levofloxacin ranges from approximately 6 to 8 hours following single or multiple doses of levofloxacin given orally. The mean apparent total body clearance and renal clearance range from approximately 144 to 226 mL/min and 96 to 142 mL/min, respectively. Renal clearance in excess of the glomerular filtration rate suggests that tubular secretion of levofloxacin occurs in addition to its glomerular filtration. Concomitant administration of either cimetidine or probenecid results in approximately 24% and 35% reduction in the levofloxacin renal clearance, respectively, indicating that secretion of levofloxacin occurs in the renal proximal tubule. No levofloxacin crystals were found in any of the urine samples freshly collected from subjects receiving Levofloxacin.
Geriatric: There are no significant differences in levofloxacin pharmacokinetics between young and elderly subjects when the subjects' differences in creatinine clearance are taken into consideration. Following a 500 mg oral dose of Levofloxacin to healthy elderly subjects (66 - 80 years of age), the mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of levofloxacin was about 7.6 hours, as compared to approximately 6 hours in younger adults. The difference was attributable to the variation in renal function status of the subjects and was not believed to be clinically significant. Drug absorption appears to be unaffected by age. Levofloxacin dose adjustment based on age alone is not necessary.
Gender: There are no significant differences in levofloxacin pharmacokinetics between male and female subjects when subjects' differences in creatinine clearance are taken into consideration. Following a 500 mg oral dose of Levofloxacin to healthy male subjects, the mean terminal plasma elimination half-life of levofloxacin was about 7.5 hours, as compared to approximately 6.1 hours in female subjects. This difference was attributable to the variation in renal function status of the male and female subjects and was not believed to be clinically significant. Drug absorption appears to be unaffected by the gender of the subjects. Dose adjustment based on gender alone is not necessary.
Race: The effect of race on levofloxacin pharmacokinetics was examined through a covariate analysis performed on data from 72 subjects: 48 white and 24 non-white. The apparent total body clearance and apparent volume of distribution were not affected by the race of the subjects.
Renal Impairment: Clearance of levofloxacin is substantially reduced and plasma elimination half-life is substantially prolonged in adult patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min), requiring dosage adjustment in such patients to avoid accumulation. Neither hemodialysis nor continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is effective in removal of levofloxacin from the body, indicating that supplemental doses of Levofloxacin are not required following hemodialysis or CAPD (see Dosage & Administration).
Hepatic Impairment: Pharmacokinetic studies in hepatically impaired patients have not been conducted. Due to the limited extent of levofloxacin metabolism, the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin are not expected to be affected by hepatic impairment.
Bacterial Infection: The pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in patients with serious community-acquired bacterial infections are comparable to those observed in healthy subjects.
Drug-Drug Interactions: The potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions between Levofloxacin and antacids, warfarin, theophylline, cyclosporine, digoxin, probenecid, and cimetidine has been evaluated (see Interactions).
Indications/Uses
Levofloxacin tablets are indicated for the treatment of adults (≥ 18 years of age) with mild, moderate, and severe infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed as follows.
Acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis.
Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (ABECB) due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis.
Community-acquired pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin resistant strains, (MIC value for penicillin ≥ 2 mcg/mL), Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, or Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Nosocomial pneumonia due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Streptococcus pneumoniae. Adjunctive therapy should be used as clinically indicated. Where Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a documented or presumptive pathogen, combination therapy with an anti-pseudomonal β-lactam is recommended.
Complicated skin and skin structure infections due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Proteus mirabilis.
Uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections (mild to moderate) including abscesses, cellulitis, furuncles, impetigo, pyoderma, wound infections, due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus pyogenes.
Complicated urinary tract infections (mild to moderate) due to Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Acute pyelonephritis (mild to moderate) caused by Escherichia coli.
Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (mild to moderate) due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
Chronic bacterial prostatitis due to Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, or methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis.
Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing the infection and to determine their susceptibility to levofloxacin (see Pharmacology under Actions). Therapy with Levofloxacin may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available, appropriate therapy should be selected.
As with other drugs in this class, some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with Levofloxacin. Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information about the continued susceptibility of the pathogens to the antimicrobial agent and also the possible emergence of bacterial resistance.
Dosage/Direction for Use
The usual dose of Levofloxacin tablets is 250 mg or 500 mg administered orally every 24 hours or 750mg administered every 24 hours, as indicated by the infection and described in the following dosing chart. These recommendations apply to patients with normal renal functions (i.e., creatinine clearance > 80 mL/minute. For patients with altered renal function see the patients with impaired Renal Function subsection. Oral doses should be administered at least two hours before or two hours after antacids containing magnesium, aluminium, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron and multivitamin preparations with zinc and didanosine, chewable/buffered tablets or the pediatric powder for oral solution. (See Tables 4 and 5.)

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When only the serum creatinine is known, the following formula may be used to estimate the creatinine clearance. (See equation.)

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The serum creatinine should represent a steady state of renal function.
Overdosage
In the event of an acute overdosage, the stomach should be emptied. The patient should be observed and appropriate hydration maintained. Levofloxacin is not efficiently removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Symptomatic treatment should be implemented, ECG monitoring should be undertaken, because of the possibility of QT interval prolongation.
Levofloxacin exhibits a low potential for acute toxicity. Mice, rats, dogs and monkeys exhibited the following clinical signs after receiving a single high dose of Levofloxacin ataxia, ptosis, decreased locomotor activity, dyspnea, prostration, tremors, and convulsions. Doses in excess of 1500 mg/kg orally and 250 mg/kg IV produced significant mortality in rodents.
Contraindications
Levofloxacin is contraindicated in persons with known hypersensitivity to levofloxacin, or other quinolone antibacterials (see Precautions).
Special Precautions
Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture: Fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This adverse reaction most frequently involves the Achilles tendon, and rupture of the Achilles tendon may require surgical repair. Tendinitis and tendon rupture in the rotator cuff (the shoulder), the hand, the biceps, the thumb, and other tendon sites have also been reported. The risk of developing fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in those taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants. Factors, in addition to age and corticosteroid use, that may independently increase the risk of tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Tendinitis and tendon rupture have been reported in patients taking fluoroquinolones who do not have the previously mentioned risk factors. Tendon rupture can occur during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after completion of therapy have been reported. Levofloxacin should be discontinued if the patient experiences pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture of a tendon. Patients should be advised to rest at the first sign of tendinitis or tendon rupture, and to contact their healthcare provider regarding changing to a non-quinolone antimicrobial drug.
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity and/or anaphylactic reactions have been reported in patients receiving therapy with fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin. These reactions often occur following the first dose. Some reactions have been accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, hypotension/shock, seizure, loss of consciousness, tingling, angioedema (including tongue, laryngeal, throat, or facial edema/swelling), airway obstruction (including bronchospasm, shortness of breath, and acute respiratory distress), dyspnea, urticaria, itching, and other serious skin reactions. Levofloxacin should be discontinued immediately at the first appearance of a skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. Serious acute hypersensitivity reactions may require treatment with epinephrine and other resuscitative measures, including oxygen, intravenous fluids, antihistamines, corticosteroids, pressor amines, and airway management, as clinically indicated.
Other Serious and Sometimes Fatal Reactions: Other serious and sometimes fatal events, some due to hypersensitivity, and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported rarely in patients receiving therapy with fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin. These events may be severe and generally occur following the administration of multiple doses. Clinical manifestations may include one or more of the following: fever, rash, or severe dermatologic reactions (e.g., toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome); vasculitis; arthralgia; myalgia; serum sickness; allergic pneumonitis; interstitial nephritis; acute renal insufficiency or failure; hepatitis; jaundice; acute hepatic necrosis or failure; anemia, including hemolytic and aplastic; thrombocytopenia, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; leukopenia; agranulocytosis; pancytopenia; and/or other hematologic abnormalities.
The drug should be discontinued immediately at the first appearance of skin rash, jaundice, or any other sign of hypersensitivity and supportive measures instituted.
Hepatotoxicity: Post-marketing reports of severe hepatotoxicity (including acute hepatitis and fatal events) have been received for patients treated with Levofloxacin No evidence of serious drug-associated hepatotoxicity was detected in clinical trials of over 7,000 patients. Severe hepatotoxicity generally occurred within 14 days of initiation of therapy and most cases occurred within 6 days. Most cases of severe hepatotoxicity were not associated with hypersensitivity. The majority of fatal hepatotoxicity reports occurred in patients 65 years of age or older and most were not associated with hypersensitivity. Levofloxacin should be discontinued immediately if the patient develops signs and symptoms of hepatitis.
Central Nervous System Effects: Convulsions and toxic psychoses have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin. Fluoroquinolones may also cause increased intracranial pressure and central nervous system stimulation which may lead to tremors, restlessness, anxiety, lightheadedness, confusion, hallucinations, paranoia, depression, nightmares, insomnia, and, rarely, suicidal thoughts or acts. These reactions may occur following the first dose. If these reactions occur in patients receiving Levofloxacin the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures instituted. As with other fluoroquinolones, Levofloxacin should be used with caution in patients with a known or suspected central nervous system (CNS) disorder that may predispose them to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy) or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose them to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., certain drug therapy, renal dysfunction).
Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Levofloxacin and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Peripheral Neuropathy: Rare cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and weakness have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin should be discontinued if the patient experiences symptoms of neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness or other alterations of sensation including light touch, pain, temperature, position sense, and vibratory sensation in order to prevent the development of an irreversible condition.
Prolongation of the QT Interval: Some fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin have been associated with prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram and infrequent cases of arrhythmia. Rare cases of torsade de pointes have been spontaneously reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin.
Caution should be taken when using fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, in patients with known risk factors for prolongation of the QT interval such as, for example: congenital long QT syndrome; concomitant use of drugs that are known to prolong the QT interval (e.g. Class IA and III antiarrhythmics, tricyclic antidepressants, macrolides, antipsychotics); uncorrected electrolyte imbalance (e.g. hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia); elderly; cardiac disease (e.g. heart failure, myocardial infarction, bradycardia).
Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis: Fluoroquinolones, including levofloxacin, have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. Post-marketing serious adverse events including deaths and requirement for ventilatory support, have been associated with fluoroquinolone use in patients with myasthenia gravis. Avoid levofloxacin in patients with a known history of myasthenia gravis.
Vision Disorders: If vision becomes impaired or any effects on the eyes are experienced, an eye specialist should be consulted immediately.
Musculoskeletal Disorders in Pediatric Patients and Arthropathic Effects in Animals: An increased incidence of musculoskeletal disorders (arthralgia, arthritis, tendonopathy, and gait abnormality) compared to controls has been observed in pediatric patients receiving levofloxacin.
In immature rats and dogs, the oral and intravenous administration of levofloxacin resulted in increased osteochondrosis. Histopathological examination of the weight-bearing joints of immature dogs dosed with levofloxacin revealed persistent lesions of the cartilage. Other quinolones also produce similar erosions in the weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species.
Blood Glucose Disturbances: As with other fluoroquinolones, disturbances of blood glucose, including symptomatic hyper- and hypoglycemia, have been reported with Levofloxacin usually in diabetic patients receiving concomitant treatment with an oral hypoglycemic agent (e.g., glyburide) or with insulin. In these patients, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended. If a hypoglycemic reaction occurs in a patient being treated with Levofloxacin, Levofloxacin should be discontinued and appropriate therapy should be initiated immediately.
Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity: Moderate to severe photosensitivity/phototoxicity reactions, the latter of which may manifest as exaggerated sunburn reactions (e.g., burning, erythema, exudation, vesicles, blistering, edema) involving areas exposed to light (typically the face, V area of the neck, extensor surfaces of the forearms, dorsa of the hands), can be associated with the use of fluoroquinolones after sun or UV light exposure. Therefore, excessive exposure to these sources of light should be avoided. Drug therapy should be discontinued if photosensitivity/phototoxicity occurs.
Development of Drug Resistant Bacteria: Prescribing Levofloxacin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Use in the Elderly: In phase 3 clinical trials, 1,190 levofloxacin-treated patients (25%) were ≥ 65 years of age. Of these, 675 patients (14%) were between the ages of 65 and 74 and 515 patients (11%) were 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
The pharmacokinetic properties of levofloxacin in younger adults and elderly adults do not differ significantly when creatinine clearance is taken into consideration. However since the drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patents with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C.
Levofloxacin was not teratogenic in rats at oral doses as high as 810 mg/kg/day which corresponds to 9.4 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area, or at intravenous doses as high as 160 mg/kg/day corresponding to 1.9 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area. The oral dose of 810 mg/kg/day to rats caused decreased fetal body weight and increased fetal mortality. No teratogenicity was observed when rabbits were dosed orally as high as 50 mg/kg/day which corresponds to 1.1 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area, or when dosed intravenously as high as 25 mg/kg/day, corresponding to 0.5 times the highest recommended human dose based upon relative body surface area.
There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Levofloxacin should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Nursing Mothers: Levofloxacin has not been measured in human milk. Based upon data from ofloxacin, it can be presumed that levofloxacin will be excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from levofloxacin in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Side Effects
The Incidence of drug-related adverse reactions in patients during Phase 3 clinical trials conducted in North America was 6.3%. Among patients receiving levofloxacin therapy, 3.9% discontinued levofloxacin therapy due to adverse experiences. The overall incidence, type and distribution of adverse events was similar in patients receiving Levofloxacin doses of 750 mg once daily compared to patients receiving doses from 250 mg once daily to 500 mg twice daily. In clinical trials, the following events were considered likely to be drug-related in patients receiving levofloxacin: nausea 1.3%, diarrhea 1.0%, vaginitis 0.7%, Insomnia 0.5%, abdominal pain 0.4%, pruritus 0.4%, dizziness 0.3%, dyspepsia 0.3%, rash 0.3%, genital moniliasis 0.2%, taste pervasion 0.2%, vomiting 0.2%, constipation 0.1%, fungal infection 0.1%, genital pruritus 0.1%, headache 0.1%, moniliasis 0.1%, nervousness 0.1%, rash erythematous 0.1%, urticaria 0.1%. In clinical trials, the following events occurred in >3% patients, regardless of drug relationship: nausea 7.2%, headache 6.4%, diarrhea 5.6%, insomnia 4.6%, injection site reaction 3.5%, constipation 3.2%.
In clinical trials, the following events occurred in 1 to 3% of patients, regardless of drug relationship: dizziness 2.7%, abdominal pain 2.5%, dyspepsia 2.4%, vomiting 2.3%, vaginitis 1.8%, injection site pain 1.7%, flatulence 1.5%, pain 1.4%, pruritus 1.3%, sinusitis 1.3%, chest pain 1.2%, fatigue 1.2%, rash 1.2%, back pain 1.1%, injection site inflammation 1.1%, rhinitis 1.0%, taste perversion 1.0%.
In clinical trials, the following events, of potential medical importance, occurred at a rate of less than 1.0%, regardless of drug relationship: (See Table 6.)

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In clinical trials using multiple-dose therapy, ophthalmologic abnormalities, including cataracts and multiple punctate lenticular opacities, have been noted in patients undergoing treatment with quinolones, including Levofloxacin. The relationship of the drugs to these events is not presently established.
Heart rate and Rhythm Disorders: Not known: ventricular arrhythmia and torsades de pointes (reported predominantly in patients with risk factor for QT prolongation), ECGQT prolonged Crystalluria and cylindruria have been reported with other quinolones.
The following laboratory abnormalities appeared in 2.2% of patients receiving Levofloxacin. It is not known whether these abnormalities were caused by the drug or the underlying condition being treated.
Blood Chemistry: decreased glucose.
Hematology: decreased lymphocytes.
Postmarketing Adverse Reactions: Additional adverse events reported from worldwide postmarketing experience with levofloxacin include: allergic pneumonitis, anaphylactic shock, anaphylactoid reaction, dysphonia, abnormal EEG, encephalopathy, eosinophilia, erythema multiforme, haemolytic anaemia, multi system organ failure, increased international normalised ratio (INR)/Prothrombin time, stevens-johnson syndrome, tendon rupture, torsades de pointes, vasodilation, Exacerbation of myasthenia gravis. Nervous system disorders (frequency not known): peripheral neuropathy (that may be irreversible) and polyneuropathy.
Drug Interactions
Drugs known to prolong QT interval: Levofloxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, should be used with caution in patients receiving drugs known to prolong the QT interval (e.g. Class IA and III antiarrhythmics, tricyclic antidepressants, macrolides, antipsychotics).
Chelation Agents: While the chelation by divalent cations is less marked than with other fluoroquinolones, concurrent administration of levofloxacin Tablets with antacids containing magnesium, or aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc may interfere with the gastrointestinal absorption of levofloxacin, resulting in systemic levels considerably lower than desired. Tablets with antacids containing magnesium, aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamins preparations with zinc or didanosine may substantially interfere with the gastrointestinal absorption of levofloxacin, resulting in systemic levels considerably lower than desired. These agents should be taken at least two hours before or two hours after oral levofloxacin administration.
Warfarin: No significant effect of levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for R- and S-warfarin was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of warfarin on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. However, there have been reports during the postmarketing experience in patients that levofloxacin enhances the effects of warfarin. Elevations of the prothrombin time in the setting of concurrent warfarin and levofloxacin use have been associated with episodes of bleeding. Prothrombin time, International Normalized Ratio (INR), or other suitable anticoagulation tests should be closely monitored if levofloxacin is administered concomitantly with warfarin. Patients should also be monitored for evidence of bleeding.
Antidiabetic Agents: Disturbances of blood glucose, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, have been reported in patients treated concomitantly with fluoroquinolones and an antidiabetic agent. Therefore, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended when these agents are co-administered (see Precautions).
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: The concomitant administration of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a fluoroquinolone, including Levofloxacin may increase the risk of CNS stimulation and convulsive seizures (see Precautions).
Theophylline: No significant effect of levofloxacin on the plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for theophylline was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Similarly, no apparent effect of theophylline on levofloxacin absorption and disposition was observed. However, concomitant administration of other fluoroquinolones with theophylline has resulted in prolonged elimination half-life, elevated serum theophylline levels, and a subsequent increase in the risk of theophylline-related adverse reactions in the patient population. Therefore, theophylline levels should be closely monitored and appropriate dosage adjustments made when levofloxacin is co-administered. Adverse reactions, including seizures, may occur with or without an elevation in serum theophylline levels (see Precautions).
Cyclosporine: No significant effect of levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for cyclosporine was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. However, elevated serum levels of cyclosporine have been reported in the patient population when co-administered with some other fluoroquinolones. Levofloxacin Cmax and ke were slightly lower while Tmax and t1/2 were slightly longer in the presence of cyclosporine than those observed in other studies without concomitant medication. The differences, however, are not considered to be clinically significant. Therefore, no dosage adjustment is required for levofloxacin or cyclosporine when administered concomitantly.
Digoxin: No significant effect of levofloxacin on the peak plasma concentrations, AUC, and other disposition parameters for digoxin was detected in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. Levofloxacin absorption and disposition kinetics were similar in the presence or absence of digoxin. Therefore, no dosage adjustment for levofloxacin or digoxin is required when administered concomitantly.
Probenecid and Cimetidine: No significant effect of probenecid or cimetidine on the Cmax of levofloxacin was observed in a clinical study involving healthy volunteers. The AUC and t1/2 of levofloxacin were higher while CL/F and CLR were lower during concomitant treatment of levofloxacin with probenecid or cimetidine compared to Levofloxacin alone. However, these changes do not warrant dosage adjustment for Levofloxacin when probenecid or cimetidine is co-administered.
Interactions with Laboratory or Diagnostic Testing: Some fluoroquinolones, including Levofloxacin may produce false-positive urine screening results for opiates using commercially available immunoassay kits. Confirmation of positive opiate screens by more specific methods may be necessary.
Storage
Store below 30°C and protect from moisture.
Patient Counseling Information
Antibacterial Resistance: Antibacterial drugs including Levofloxacin should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Levofloxacin is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and; increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Levofloxacin or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Administration with Food, Fluids, and Concomitant Medications: Patients should be informed that Levofloxacin tablets may be taken with or without food. The tablet should be taken at the same time each day.
Patients should drink fluids liberally while taking Levofloxacin to avoid formation of a highly concentrated urine and crystal formation in the urine.
Antacids containing magnesium, or aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc or didanosine should be taken at least two hours before or two hours after oral levofloxacin administration.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
J01MA12 - levofloxacin ; Belongs to the class of fluoroquinolones. Used in the systemic treatment of infections.
Presentation/Packing
FC tab 250 mg (pink coloured, capsule shaped, biconvex, debossed with 25 on one side and 1 on other side) x 3 x 10's. 500 mg (orange coloured, capsule shaped, biconvex, debossed with 26 on one side and 1 on other side) x 3 x 10's.
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