Linezolid Hetero

Linezolid Hetero Special Precautions

linezolid

Manufacturer:

Hetero Labs

Distributor:

Medicell Pharma
Full Prescribing Info
Special Precautions
Pseudomembranous Colitis: Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including linezolid, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including linezolid, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use.
Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Myelosuppression: Myelosuppression (including anemia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, and thrombocytopenia) has been reported in patients receiving linezolid. In cases where the outcome is known, when linezolid was discontinued, the affected hematologic parameters have risen toward pretreatments level. Complete blood counts should be monitored weekly in patients who receive linezolid, particularly in those who receive linezolid for longer than two weeks, those with pre-existing myelosuppression, those receiving concomitant drugs that produce bone marrow suppression, or those with chronic infection who have received previous or concomitant antibiotic therapy. Discontinuation of therapy with linezolid should be considered in patients who develop or have worsening myelosuppression.
Lactic Acidosis: Lactic acidosis has been reported with the use of linezolid. In reported cases, patients experienced repeated episodes of nausea and vomiting. Patients who develop recurrent nausea or vomiting, unexplained acidosis, or a low bicarbonate level while receiving Linezolid should receive immediate medical evaluation.
Prescribing Linezolid in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Peripheral and Optic Neuropathy: Peripheral and optic neuropathy have been reported in patients treated with linezolid, primarily those patients treated for longer than the maximum recommended duration of 28 days. In cases of optic neuropathy that progressed to loss of vision, patients were treated for extended periods beyond the maximum recommended duration.
If symptoms of visual impairment appear, such as changes in visual acuity, changes in color vision, blurred vision, or visual field defect, prompt ophthalmic evaluation is recommended. Visual function should be monitored in all patients taking linezolid for extended periods (greater than or equal to 3 months) and in all patients reporting new visual symptoms regardless of length of therapy with linezolid. If peripheral or optic neuropathy occurs, the continued use of linezolid in these patients should be weighed against the potential risks.
Convulsions: Convulsions have been reported to occur rarely in patients when treated with linezolid. In most of these cases, a history of seizures or risk factors for seizures were reported.
Serotonin syndrome: Spontaneous reports of serotonin syndrome associated with the co-administration of linezolid and serotonergic agents, including antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been reported.
Where administration of linezolid and concomitant serotonergic agents is clinically appropriate, patients should be closely observed for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome such as cognitive dysfunction, hyperpyrexia, hyperreflexia and incoordination. If signs or symptoms occur, physicians should consider discontinuation of either one or both agents. If the concomitant serotonergic agent is withdrawn, discontinuation symptoms can be observed.
Linezolid has not been studied in patients with uncontrolled hypertension, phaeochromocytoma, carcino id syndrome, or untreated hyperthyroidism.
The safety and efficacy of Linezolid formulations given for longer than 28 days have not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials.
In healthy volunteers, co-administration of rifampin with linezolid resulted in a 21% decrease in linezolid Cmax and a 32% decrease in linezolid AUC (see Interactions). The clinical significance of this interaction is unknown.
Use in Gram-negative pathogens: Linezolid has no clinical activity against Gram-negative pathogens and is not indicated for the treatment of Gram-negative infections. Specific Gram-negative therapy is required if a concomitant Gram-negative pathogen is documented or suspected. Linezolid should be used with special caution in patients at high risk for life threatening systemic infections, such as those with infections related to central venous catheters in intensive care units. Linezolid is not approved for the treatment of patients with catheter-related bloodstream infections.
Clinical Trial in Catheter-Related Gram-Positive Bloodstream Infections: An open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted in adult patients with catheter-related Gram-positive bloodstream infections comparing linezolid (600 mg q12h IV/PO) to vancomycin 1 g IV q12h or oxacillin 2 g IV q6h/dicloxacillin 500 mg PO q6h with a treatment duration of 7 to 28 days. The mortality rates in this study were 78/363 (21.5%) and 58/363 (16.0%) on linezolid and the comparator, respectively. Based on results from a logistic regression, the estimated odds ratio is 1.426 [95%CI 0.970, 2.098]. While causality has not been established, this observed imbalance occurred primarily in linezolid-treated patients in whom either Gram-negative pathogens, mixed Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens, or no pathogen were identified at baseline. Patients randomized to linezolid who had only a Gram-positive infection at baseline, including the subgroup of patients with Gram-positive bacteremia experienced a survival rate similar to the comparator.
Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines: The effect of linezolid on the ability to drive or operate machinery has not been systematically evaluated.
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