Pharmacotherapeutic group: Other antipsychotics. ATC code: N05AX08.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of Action: Risperidone is a selective monoaminergic antagonist with unique properties. It has a high affinity for serotoninergic 5-HT2 and dopaminergic D2 receptors. Risperidone binds also to alpha1-adrenergic receptors, and, with lower affinity, to H1-histaminergic and alpha2–adrenergic receptors. Risperidone has no affinity for cholinergic receptors.
Although risperidone is a potent D2 antagonist, which is considered to improve the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, it causes less depression of motor activity and induction of catalepsy than classical neuroleptics. Balanced central serotonin and dopamine antagonism may reduce extrapyramidal side effect liability and extend the therapeutic activity to the negative and affective symptoms of schizophrenia.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Risperidone is completely absorbed after oral administration, reaching peak plasma concentrations within 1 to 2 hours. The absorption is not affected by food and thus risperidone can be given with or without meals.
Distribution: Risperidone is rapidly distributed. The volume of distribution is 1-2 l/kg. In plasma, risperidone is bound to albumin and alpha1-acid glycoprotein. The plasma protein binding of risperidone is 88%, that of 9-hydroxyrisperidone is 77%.
One week after administration, 70% of the dose is excreted in the urine and 14% in the feces. In urine, risperidone plus 9-hydroxy-risperidone represent 35-45% of the dose. The remainder is inactive metabolites.
Metabolism: Risperidone is metabolized by CYP 2D6 to 9-hydroxy-risperidone, which has a similar pharmacological activity as risperidone. Risperidone plus 9-hydroxy-risperidone form the active antipsychotic fraction. Another metabolic pathway of risperidone is N-dealkylation.
Elimination: After oral administration to psychotic patients, risperidone is eliminated with a half-life of about 3 hours. The elimination half-life of 9-hydroxy-risperidone and of the active antipsychotic fraction is 24 hours.
Dose Proportionality: Steady-state of risperidone is reached within 1 day in most patients. Steady-state of 9-hydroxy-risperidone is reached within 4-5 days of dosing. Risperidone plasma concentrations are dose-proportional within the therapeutic dose-range.
Special Populations: Pediatrics: The pharmacokinetics of risperidone, 9-hydroxy-risperidone and the active antipsychotic fraction in children are similar to those in adults.
Renal and Hepatic Impairment: A single-dose study showed higher active plasma concentrations and a reduced clearance of the active antipsychotic fraction by 30% in the elderly and 60% in patients with renal insufficiency. Risperidone plasma concentrations were normal in patients with liver insufficiency, but the mean free fraction of risperidone in plasma was increased by about 35%.
Toxicology: Non-Clinical Information: In (sub) chronic toxicity studies, in which dosing was started in sexually immature rats and dogs, dose-dependent effects were present in male and female genital tract and mammary gland. These effects were related to the increased serum prolactin levels, resulting from the dopamine D2-receptor blocking activity of risperidone. In a toxicity study with juvenile rats, increased pup mortality and a delay in physical development was observed. In a 40-week study with juvenile dogs, sexual maturation was delayed. Long bone growth was not affected at a dose similar to the maximum human dose in adolescents (6 mg/day); effects were observed at a dose 4-fold (on an AUC basis) or 7-fold (on a mg/m2 basis) the maximum human dose in adolescents.
All other safety data relevant to the prescriber have been included in the appropriate section.