Symptoms: Symptoms of overdosage may include hypotension, cardiac insufficiency, bradycardia and bradyarrhythmia, cardiac conduction disturbances and bronchospasm.
Management: Care should be provided at a facility that can provide appropriate supporting measures, monitoring, and supervision. If justified, gastric lavage and/or activated charcoal can be administrated. Atropine, adreno stimulating drugs or pacemaker to treat bradycardia and conduction disorders. Hypotension, acute cardiac failure, and shock to be treated with suitable volume expansion, injection of glucagon (if necessary, followed by an intravenous infusion of glucagon), intravenous administration of adreno stimulating drugs such as dobutamine, with α1 receptor agonistic drugs added in presence of vasodilation. Intravenous use of Ca2+ can also be considered. Bronchospasm can usually be reversed by bronchodilators.