Pharmacology: Insulin is a hormone produced in the specialized pancreas cells. It participates in carbohydrates, fat and protein metabolism, causing, among others, glucose lowering in blood serum.
Insulin deficiency in organism causes diabetes.
The injected insulin acts identically as the organism produced hormone.
The administered orally insulin is totally resolved in the digestive tract and therefore the insulin preparations are administered in injections.
Human insulin preparations GENSULIN come in the following forms: Solution-GENSULIN R, its therapeutic action starts within 30 minutes and it reaches maximum effect 1-3 hours after the administration; the hypoglycaemic effect of the preparations continues up to 8 hours and depends on the administered dose.
Isophane suspension, GENSULIN N; its therapeutic action starts within 1 hour after the administration, reaches its maximum effect between 3rd and 10th hour (according to the dose) and continuous up to 24 hours.
Diphasic isophane suspensions-mixtures GENSULIN M10, M20, M30, M40, M50 that therapeutic action starts within 30 minutes after administration, maximum effect-between 2nd and 8th hour and the hypoglycaemic effect continues up to 24 hours and depends on the administered dose.
In healthy humans about 5% of insulin is bound with blood proteins. Insulin was also detected in cerebro-spinal fluid where its concentration constituted around 25% of total insulin concentration in blood serum.
Insulin is metabolised in liver and kidneys. Some quantities of insulin are metabolised in muscles and fat tissue. Insulin is identically metabolised in healthy and diabetic humans. It is eliminated through kidneys. Minute quantities of insulin are eliminated with bile. The half-life of insulin is circa 4 minutes. Liver and kidneys impairment may delay insulin elimination.
In elderly patients insulin elimination is slower and its hypoglycaemic effect is prolonged.