An excess of Insulin relative to food intake, energy expenditure or both may lead to severe and sometimes long-term and life-threatening hypoglycemia. Mild episodes of hypoglycemia can usually be treated with oral glucose/carbohydrates. Adjustments in drug dosage, meal patterns, or exercise may be needed. More severe episodes with coma, seizure or neurologic impairment must treated with concentrated intravenous glucose. After apparent clinical recovery from hypoglycemia, continued observation and additional carbohydrate intake may be necessary to avoid recurrence of hypoglycemia. It is therefore recommended that the diabetic patient constantly carry some sugar lumps, sweets, biscuits, or sugary fruit juice. Adjustments in drug dosage, meal patterns, or exercise, may be needed.