Humalog Mix 50/50 KwikPen

Humalog Mix 50/50 KwikPen

insulin lispro + insulin lispro protamine

Manufacturer:

Eli Lilly

Distributor:

Zuellig Pharma
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Insulin lispro 50%, insulin lispro protamine suspension 50% (rDNA origin).
Description
One ml contains 100U (equivalent to 3.5mg) insulin lispro (recombinant DNA origin produced in E. coli).
Each container includes 3ml equivalent to 300U insulin lispro.
Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen consists of 50% insulin lispro solution and 50% insulin lispro protamine suspension.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Protamine sulphate, m-cresol [2.20 mg/ml], phenol [1.00 mg/ml], glycerol, dibasic sodium phosphate.7H2O, zinc oxide, water for injections, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide may be used to adjust pH to 7.0-7.8.
Action
Pharmaco-therapeutic Group: ATC Code: A10AD04.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen is a premixed suspension consisting of insulin lispro (fast-acting human insulin analogue) and insulin lispro protamine suspension (intermediate acting human insulin analogue).
The primary activity of insulin lispro is the regulation of glucose metabolism.
In addition, insulins have several anabolic and anti-catabolic actions on a variety of different tissues. Within muscle tissue this includes increasing glycogen, fatty acid, glycerol and protein synthesis and amino acid uptake, while decreasing glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, ketogenesis, lipolysis, protein catabolism and amino acid output.
Insulin lispro has a rapid onset of action (approximately 15 minutes), thus allowing it to be given closer to a meal (within zero to 15 minutes of the meal) when compared to regular insulin (30 to 45 minutes before). The rapid onset and early peak of activity of insulin lispro is observed following the subcutaneous administration of Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen. NPL has an activity profile that is very similar to that of a basal insulin (NPH) over a period of approximately 15 hours.
In the figure the pharmacodynamics of Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen and NPL are illustrated. (See Figure.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

The figure reflects the relative amount of glucose over time required to maintain the subject's whole blood glucose concentrations near fasting levels and is an indicator of the effect of these insulins on glucose metabolism over time.
The glucodynamic response to insulin lispro is not affected by renal or hepatic function impairment. Glucodynamic differences between insulin lispro and soluble human insulin, as measured during a glucose clamp procedure, were maintained over a wide range of renal function.
Insulin lispro has been shown to be equipotent to human insulin on a molar basis.
Pharmacokinetics: The pharmacokinetics of insulin lispro reflect a compound that is rapidly absorbed, and achieves peak blood levels 30 to 70 minutes following subcutaneous injection. The pharmacokinetics of insulin lispro protamine suspension are consistent with those of an intermediate acting insulin such as NPH. The pharmacokinetics of Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen are representative of the individual pharmacokinetic properties of the two components. When considering the clinical relevance of these kinetics, it is more appropriate to examine the glucose utilisation curves (as discussed in the previous text).
Insulin lispro maintains more rapid absorption when compared to soluble human insulin in patients with renal impairment. In patients with type 2 diabetes over a wide range of renal function the pharmacokinetic differences between insulin lispro and soluble human insulin were generally maintained and shown to be independent of renal function. Insulin lispro maintains more rapid absorption and elimination when compared to soluble human insulin in patients with hepatic impairment.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: In in vitro tests, including binding to insulin receptor sites and effects on growing cells, insulin lispro behaved in a manner that closely resembled human insulin. Studies also demonstrate that the dissociation of binding to the insulin receptor of insulin lispro is equivalent to human insulin. Acute, one month and twelve month toxicology studies produced no significant toxicity findings.
Insulin lispro did not induce fertility impairment, embryotoxicity or teratogenicity in animal studies.
Indications/Uses
Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen is indicated for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus who require insulin for the maintenance of normal glucose homeostasis.
Dosage/Direction for Use
The dosage should be determined by the physician, according to the requirement of the patient.
Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen may be given shortly before meals. When necessary, Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen can be given soon after meals. Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen should only be given by subcutaneous injection. Under no circumstances should Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen be given intravenously.
Subcutaneous administration should be in the upper arms, thighs, buttocks, or abdomen. Use of injection sites should be rotated so that the same site is not used more than approximately once a month.
When administered subcutaneously care should be taken when injecting Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen to ensure that a blood vessel has not been entered. After injection, the site of injection should not be massaged. Patients must be educated to use the proper injection techniques.
The rapid onset and early peak of activity of Humalog itself is observed following the subcutaneous administration of Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen. This allows Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen to be given very close to mealtime. The duration of action of the insulin lispro protamine suspension (NPL) component of Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen is similar to that of a basal insulin (NPH).
The time course of action of any insulin may vary considerably in different individuals or at different times in the same individual. As with all insulin preparations, the duration of action of Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen is dependent on dose, site of injection, blood supply, temperature, and physical activity.
Overdosage
Insulins have no specific overdose definitions because serum glucose concentrations are a result of complex interactions between insulin levels, glucose availability and other metabolic processes. Hypoglycaemia may occur as a result of an excess of insulin activity relative to food intake and energy expenditure.
Hypoglycaemia may be associated with listlessness, confusion, palpitations, headache, sweating and vomiting.
Mild hypoglycaemic episodes will respond to oral administration of glucose or other sugar or saccharated products.
Correction of moderately severe hypoglycaemia can be accomplished by intramuscular or subcutaneous administration of glucagon, followed by oral carbohydrate when the patient recovers sufficiently. Patients who fail to respond to glucagon must be given glucose solution intravenously.
If the patient is comatose, glucagon should be administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously. However, glucose solution must be given intravenously if glucagon is not available or if the patient fails to respond to glucagon. The patient should be given a meal as soon as consciousness is recovered.
Sustained carbohydrate intake and observation may be necessary because hypoglycaemia may recur after apparent clinical recovery.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to insulin lispro or to any of the excipients.
Hypoglycaemia.
Special Precautions
Under no circumstances should Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen be given intravenously.
Transferring a patient to another type or brand of insulin should be done under strict medical supervision. Changes in strength, brand (manufacturer), type (regular, NPH, etc.), species (animal, human, human insulin analogue), and/or method of manufacture (recombinant DNA versus animal-source insulin) may result in the need for a change in dosage.
Patients taking Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen may require a change in dosage from that used with their usual insulins. If an adjustment is needed, it may occur with the first dose or during the first several weeks or months.
Patients whose blood glucose is greatly improved, e.g. by intensified insulin therapy, may lose some or all of the warning symptoms of hypoglycaemia and should be advised accordingly.
Conditions which may make the early warning symptoms of hypoglycaemia different or less pronounced include long duration of diabetes, intensified insulin therapy, diabetic nerve disease or medications such as beta-blockers.
A few patients who have experienced hypoglycaemic reactions after transfer from animal-source insulin to human insulin have reported that the early warning symptoms of hypoglycaemia were less pronounced or different from those experienced with their previous insulin. Uncorrected hypoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic reactions can cause loss of consciousness, coma, or death.
The use of dosages which are inadequate or discontinuation of treatment, especially in insulin-dependent diabetics, may lead to hyperglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidosis; conditions which are potentially lethal.
Insulin requirements may be reduced in the presence of renal impairment. Insulin requirements may be reduced in patients with hepatic impairment due to reduced capacity for gluconeogenesis and reduced insulin breakdown; however, in patients with chronic hepatic impairment, an increase in insulin resistance may lead to increased insulin requirements.
Insulin requirements may be increased during illness or emotional disturbances.
Adjustment of dosage may also be necessary if patients undertake increased physical activity or change their usual diet. Exercise taken immediately after a meal may increase the risk of hypoglycaemia.
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) used in combination with insulin: TZDs in combination with insulin, are associated with an increased risk of edema and heart failure; especially in patients with underlying cardiac disease.
Administration of insulin lispro to children below 12 years of age should be considered only in case of an expected benefit when compared to regular insulin.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: The patient's ability to concentrate and react may be impaired as a result of hypoglycaemia. This may constitute a risk in situations where these abilities are of special importance (e.g. driving a car or operating machinery).
Patients should be advised to take precautions to avoid hypoglycaemia whilst driving, this is particularly important in those who have reduced or absent awareness of the warning signs of hypoglycaemia or have frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia. The advisability of driving should be considered in these circumstances.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Data on a large number of exposed pregnancies do not indicate any adverse effect of insulin lispro on pregnancy or on the health of the foetus/newborn.
It is essential to maintain good control of the insulin-treated (insulin-dependent or gestational diabetes) patient throughout pregnancy. Insulin requirements usually fall during the first trimester and increase during the second and third trimesters. Patients with diabetes should be advised to inform their doctor if they are pregnant or are contemplating pregnancy. Careful monitoring of glucose control, as well as general health, is essential in pregnant patients with diabetes.
Patients with diabetes who are breast-feeding may require adjustments in insulin dose, diet or both.
Adverse Reactions
Hypoglycaemia is the most frequent undesirable effect of insulin therapy that a patient with diabetes may suffer. Severe hypoglycaemia may lead to loss of consciousness, and in extreme cases, death.
Local allergy in patients occasionally occurs as redness, swelling, and itching at the site of insulin injection. This condition usually resolves in a few days to a few weeks. In some instances, this condition may be related to factors other than insulin, such as irritants in the skin cleansing agent or poor injection technique. Systemic allergy, less common but potentially more serious, is a generalised allergy to insulin. It may cause a rash over the whole body, shortness of breath, wheezing, reduction in blood pressure, fast pulse, or sweating. Severe cases of generalised allergy may be life-threatening.
Lipodystrophy may occur at the injection site.
Spontaneous Data: Cases of edema have been reported with insulin therapy, particularly if previous poor metabolic control is improved by intensified insulin therapy (see also Precautions).
Drug Interactions
Insulin requirements may be increased by substances with hyperglycaemic activity, such as oral contraceptives, corticosteroids, or thyroid replacement therapy, danazol, beta2 stimulants (such as ritodrine, salbutamol, terbutaline).
Insulin requirements may be reduced in the presence of substances with hypoglycaemic activity, such as oral hypoglycaemics, salicylates, sulpha antibiotics, certain antidepressants (monoamine oxidase inhibitors), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta-blockers, octreotide or alcohol.
Mixing Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen with other insulins has not been studied. The physician should be consulted when using other medications in addition to Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen (see also Precautions).
Caution For Usage
Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Instructions for use and handling: The KwikPen should be rotated in the palms of the hands ten times and inverted 180° ten times immediately before use to resuspend the insulin until it appears uniformly cloudy or milky. If not, repeat the above procedure until contents are mixed. Cartridges contain a small glass bead to assist mixing. Do not shake vigorously as this may cause frothing which may interfere with the correct measurement of the dose.
The cartridges should be examined frequently and should not be used if clumps of material are present or if solid white particles stick to the bottom or wall of the cartridge, giving a frosted appearance.
Handling of the pre-filled pen: Before using the KwikPen the user manual included in the package leaflet must be read carefully. The KwikPen has to be used as recommended in the user manual.
Incompatibilities: Mixing Humalog Mix 50/50 Kwikpen with other insulins has not been studied. In the absence of compatibility studies, this medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products.
Storage
Unused pre-filled pens: Store in a refrigerator (2°C-8°C). Do not freeze. Do not expose to excessive heat or direct sunlight.
After first use: Store below 30°C. Do not refrigerate. The pre-filled pen should not be stored with the needle attached.
Shelf-Life: Unused pre-filled pens: 3 years.
After first use: 28 days.
ATC Classification
A10AD04 - insulin lispro ; Belongs to the class of intermediate-acting combined with fast-acting insulins and analogues. Used in the treatment of diabetes.
Presentation/Packing
Inj (pre-filled pen) (white, sterile susp) 100 u/mL x 3 mL x 5's.
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