Inovelon

Inovelon

rufinamide

Manufacturer:

Eisai

Distributor:

DKSH

Marketer:

Eisai
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Rufinamide.
Description
Each film-coated tablet contains 200 mg rufinamide.
INOVELON (rufinamide) is a triazole derivative structurally unrelated to currently marketed antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Rufinamide has the chemical name 1-[(2,6-difluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-1,2,3- triazole-4 carboxamide. It has an empirical formula of C10H8F2N4O and a molecular weight of 238.2. The drug substance is a white, crystalline, odorless, and slightly bitter tasting neutral powder. Rufinamide is practically insoluble in water, slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran and in methanol, and very slightly soluble in ethanol and in acetonitrile.
INOVELON is available for oral administration in film-coated tablets, scored on both sides, containing 200 of rufinamide.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Colloidal silicon dioxide, corn starch crosscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium lauryl sulphate.
Film coating: Hypromellose, iron oxide red, polyethylene glycol, talc, and titanium dioxide.
Action
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of Action: The precise mechanism(s) by which rufinamide exerts its antiepileptic effect is unknown.
The results of in vitro studies suggest that the principal mechanism of action of rufinamide is modulation of the activity of sodium channels and, in particular, prolongation of the inactive state of the channel. Rufinamide (≥ 1 μM) significantly slowed sodium channel recovery from inactivation after a prolonged prepulse in cultured cortical neurons, and limited sustained repetitive firing of sodium-dependent action potentials (EC50 of 3.8 μM).
Clinical Studies: Adult and Pediatric Patients ages 4 years and older: The effectiveness of INOVELON as adjunctive treatment for the seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS) in adult and pediatric patients ages 4 years and older was established in a single multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-group study (N=138). Male and female patients (between 4 and 30 years of age) were included if they had a diagnosis of inadequately controlled seizures associated with LGS (including both atypical absence seizures and drop attacks) and were being treated with 1 to 3 concomitant stable dose AEDs. Each patient must have had at least 90 seizures in the month prior to study entry. After completing a 4-week Baseline Phase on stable therapy, patients were randomized to have INOVELON or placebo added to their ongoing therapy during the 12 - week Double-blind Phase. The Double-blind Phase consisted of 2 periods: the Titration Period (1 to 2 weeks) and the Maintenance Period (10 weeks). During the Titration Period, the dose was increased to a target dosage of approximately 45 mg/kg per day (3200 mg in adults of ≥ 70 kg), given on a twice daily schedule. Dosage reductions were permitted during titration if problems in tolerability were encountered. Final doses at titration were to remain stable during the maintenance period. Target dosage was achieved in 88% of the INOVELON-treated patients. The majority of these patients reached the target dose within 7 days, with the remaining patients achieving the target dose within 14 days.
The primary efficacy variables were: The percent change in total seizure frequency per 28 days; The percent change in tonic-atonic (drop attacks) seizure frequency per 28 days; Seizure severity from the Parent/Guardian Global Evaluation of the patient's condition. This was a 7-point assessment performed at the end of the Double-blind Phase. A score of +3 indicated that the patient's seizure severity was very much improved, a score of 0 that the seizure severity was unchanged, and a score of -3 that the seizure severity was very much worse.
The results of the three primary endpoints are shown in Table 1. (See Table 1.)

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Pediatric Patients ages 1 to less than 4 years: The effectiveness of INOVELON as adjunctive treatment for the seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome in pediatric patients ages 1 year to less than 4 years was established based on a single multi-center, open-label, active-controlled, randomized, pharmacokinetic bridging study. The pharmacokinetic profile of INOVELON is not significantly affected by age either as a continuous covariate (1 to 35 years) or as a categorical covariate (age categories: 1 to less than 4 years and 4 years of age and older), after body weight is taken into consideration.
Pharmacokinetics: Overview: INOVELON oral suspension is bioequivalent on a mg per mg basis to INOVELON tablets. INOVELON is well absorbed after oral administration. However, the rate of absorption is relatively slow and the extent of absorption is decreased as dose is increased. The pharmacokinetics does not change with multiple dosing. Most elimination of rufinamide is via metabolism, with the primary metabolite resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the carboxamide moiety to form the carboxylic acid. This metabolic route is not cytochrome P450 dependent. There are no known active metabolites. Plasma half-life of rufinamide is approximately 6-10 hours.
Absorption and Distribution: Following oral administration of INOVELON, peak plasma concentrations occur between 4 and 6 hours (Tmax) both under fed and fasted conditions. INOVELON tablets display decreasing bioavailability with increasing dose after single and multiple dose administration. Based on urinary excretion, the extent of absorption was at least 85% following oral administration of a single dose of 600 mg rufinamide tablet under fed conditions.
Multiple dose pharmacokinetics can be predicted from single dose data for both rufinamide and its metabolite. Given the dosing frequency of every 12 hours and the half-life of 6 to 10 hours, the observed steady-state peak concentration of about two to three times the peak concentration after a single dose is expected.
Food increased the extent of absorption of rufinamide in healthy volunteers by 34% and increased peak exposure by 56% after a single dose of 400 mg tablet, although the Tmax was not elevated (see Dosage & Administration).
Only a small fraction of rufinamide (34%) is bound to human serum proteins, predominantly to albumin (27%), giving little risk of displacement drug-drug interactions. Rufinamide was evenly distributed between erythrocytes and plasma. The apparent volume of distribution is dependent upon dose and varies with body surface area. The apparent volume of distribution was about 50 L at 3200 mg per day.
Metabolism: Rufinamide is extensively metabolized but has no active metabolites. Following a radiolabeled dose of rufinamide, less than 2% of the dose was recovered unchanged in urine. The primary biotransformation pathway is carboxylesterase(s) mediated hydrolysis of the carboxamide group to the acid derivative CGP 47292. A few minor additional metabolites were detected in urine, which appeared to be acylglucuronides of CGP 47292. There is no involvement of oxidizing cytochrome P450 enzymes or glutathione in the biotransformation process.
Rufinamide is a weak inhibitor of CYP 2E1. It did not show significant inhibition of other CYP enzymes. Rufinamide is a weak inducer of CYP 3A4 enzymes.
Rufinamide did not show any significant inhibition of P-glycoprotein in an in vitro study.
Elimination/Excretion: Renal excretion is the predominant route of elimination for drug related material, accounting for 85% of the dose based on a radiolabeled study. Of the metabolites identified in urine, at least 66% of the rufinamide dose was excreted as the acid metabolite CGP 47292, with 2% of the dose excreted as rufinamide.
The plasma elimination half-life is approximately 6-10 hours in healthy subjects and patients with epilepsy.
Special Populations: Age: Pediatrics: Based on a population analysis which included a total of 115 patients, including 85 pediatric patients (24 patients ages 1 to 3 years, 40 patients ages 4 to 11 years, and 21 patients ages 12 to 17 years), the pharmacokinetics of rufinamide was similar across all age groups.
Elderly: The results of a study evaluating single-dose (400 mg) and multiple dose (800 mg per day for 6 days) pharmacokinetics of rufinamide in 8 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 years old) and 7 younger healthy subjects (18-45 years old) found no significant age-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of rufinamide.
Sex: Population pharmacokinetic analyses of females show a 6-14% lower apparent clearance of rufinamide compared to males. This effect is not clinically important.
Race: In a population pharmacokinetic analysis of clinical studies, no difference in clearance or volume of distribution of rufinamide was observed between the black and Caucasian subjects, after controlling for body size. Information on other races could not be obtained because of smaller numbers of these subjects.
Renal Impairment: Rufinamide pharmacokinetics in 9 patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL per min) was similar to that of healthy subjects. Patients undergoing dialysis 3 hours post rufinamide dosing showed a reduction in AUC and Cmax by 29% and 16%, respectively.
Drug Interactions: Based on in vitro studies, rufinamide shows little or no inhibition of most cytochrome P450 enzymes at clinically relevant concentrations, with weak inhibition of CYP 2E1. Drugs that are substrates of CYP 2E1 (e.g., chlorzoxazone) may have increased plasma levels in the presence of rufinamide, but this has not been studied.
Based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis, rufinamide clearance was decreased by valproate. In pediatric patients, valproate administration may lead to elevated levels of rufinamide by up to 70% (see Interactions)
Based on in vivo drug interaction studies with triazolam and oral contraceptives, rufinamide is a weak inducer of the CYP 3A4 enzyme and can decrease exposure of drugs that are substrates of CYP 3A4.
Co-administration and pre-treatment of INOVELON (400 mg twice daily) and triazolam resulted in a 37% decrease in AUC and a 23% decrease in Cmax of triazolam, a CYP 3A4 substrate.
Co-administration of INOVELON (800 mg twice daily for 14 days) and Ortho-Novum 1/35 resulted in a mean decrease in the ethinyl estradiol AUC0-24 of 22% and Cmax by 31% and norethindrone AUC0-24 by 14% and Cmax by 18%, respectively. The clinical significance of this decrease is unknown (see Interactions).
Rufinamide is metabolized by carboxylesterases. Drugs that may induce the activity of carboxylesterases may increase the clearance of rufinamide. Broad-spectrum inducers such as carbamazepine and phenobarbital may have minor effects on rufinamide metabolism via this mechanism. Drugs that are inhibitors of carboxylesterases may decrease metabolism of rufinamide.
Nonclinical Toxicology: Carcinogenesis: Rufinamide was given in the diet to mice at 40, 120, and 400 mg/kg per day and to rats at 20, 60, and 200 mg/kg per day for 2 years. The doses in mice were associated with plasma AUCs 0.1 to 1 times the human plasma AUC at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD, 3200 mg/day). Increased incidences of tumors (benign bone tumors (osteomas) and/or hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas) were observed in mice at all doses. Increased incidences of thyroid follicular adenomas were observed in rats at all but the low dose; the low dose is < 0.1 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.
Mutagenesis: Rufinamide was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay or the in vitro mammalian cell point mutation assay. Rufinamide was not clastogenic in the in vitro mammalian cell chromosomal aberration assay or the in vivo rat bone marrow micronucleus assay.
Impairment of Fertility: Oral administration of rufinamide (doses of 20, 60, 200, and 600 mg/kg per day) to male and female rats prior to mating and throughout mating, and continuing in females up to day 6 of gestation resulted in impairment of fertility (decreased conception rates and mating and fertility indices; decreased numbers of corpora lutea, implantations, and live embryos; increased preimplantation loss; decreased sperm count and motility) at all doses tested. Therefore, a no-effect dose was not established. The lowest dose tested was associated with a plasma AUC ≈ 0.2 times the human plasma AUC at the MRHD.
Indications/Uses
INOVELON is indicated for adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome in pediatric patients 1 year of age and older and in adults.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Pediatric patients (1 year to less than 17 years): The recommended starting daily dose of INOVELON in pediatric patients with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome is approximately 10 mg/kg administered in two equally divided doses. The dose should be increased by approximately 10 mg/kg increments every other day until a maximum daily dose of 45 mg/kg, not to exceed 3200 mg, administered in two equally divided doses, is reached. It is not known whether doses lower than the target doses are effective.
Adults (17 years and older): The recommended starting daily dose of INOVELON in adults with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome is 400 to 800 mg per day administered in two equally divided doses. The dose should be increased by 400-800 mg every other day until a maximum daily dose of 3200 mg, administered in two equally divided doses, is reached. It is not known whether doses lower than 3200 mg are effective.
Administration Information: Administer INOVELON with food. INOVELON film-coated tablets can be administered whole, as half tablets or crushed.
Dosing in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis: Hemodialysis may reduce exposure to a limited (about 30%) extent. Accordingly, adjusting the INOVELON dose during the dialysis process should be considered (see Pharmacology under Actions).
Dosing in Patients with Hepatic Disease: Use of INOVELON in patients with hepatic impairment has not been studied. Therefore, use in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended. Caution should be exercised in treating patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (see Precautions).
Dosing in Patients Taking Valproate: Patients taking valproate should begin INOVELON at a dose lower than 10 mg/kg per day in pediatric patients or 400 mg per day in adults (see Interactions).
Overdosage
Because strategies for the management of overdose are continually evolving, it is advisable to contact a Certified Poison Control Center to determine the latest recommendations for the management of an overdose of any drug.
One overdose of 7200 mg per day INOVELON was reported in an adult during the clinical trials. The overdose was associated with no major signs or symptoms, no medical intervention was required, and the patient continued in the study at the target dose.
Treatment or Management of Overdose: There is no specific antidote for overdose with INOVELON. If clinically indicated, elimination of unabsorbed drug should be attempted by induction of emesis or gastric lavage. Usual precautions should be observed to maintain the airway. General supportive care of the patient is indicated including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the clinical status of the patient.
Hemodialysis: Standard hemodialysis procedures may result in limited clearance of rufinamide. Although there is no experience to date in treating overdose with hemodialysis, the procedure may be considered when indicated by the patient's clinical state.
Contraindications
INOVELON is contraindicated in patients with Familial Short QT syndrome (see Precautions).
Special Precautions
Suicidal Behavior and Ideation: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including INOVELON, increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior.
Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono- and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to one of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted Relative Risk 1.8, 95% CI:1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared to patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence rate of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED-treated patients was 0.43%, compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase of approximately one case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were four suicides in drug-treated patients in the trials and none in placebo-treated patients, but the number is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.
The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as 1 week after starting drug treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed.
The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanisms of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5-100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed. Table 2 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs. (See Table 2.)

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The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behavior was higher in clinical trials for epilepsy than in clinical trials for psychiatric or other conditions, but the absolute risk differences were similar for the epilepsy and psychiatric indications.
Anyone considering prescribing INOVELON or any other AED must balance the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated.
Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed that AEDs increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of the signs and symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior, or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior, or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers.
Central Nervous System Reactions: Use of INOVELON has been associated with central nervous system-related adverse reactions in the controlled clinical trial of patients 4 years or older with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome. The most significant of these can be classified into two general categories: 1) somnolence or fatigue, and 2) coordination abnormalities, dizziness, gait disturbances, and ataxia.
Somnolence was reported in 24% of INOVELON-treated patients compared to 13% of patients on placebo, and led to study discontinuation in 3% of INOVELON-treated patients compared to 0% of patients on placebo. Fatigue was reported in 10% of INOVELON-treated patients compared to 8% of patients on placebo patients. It led to study discontinuation in 1% of INOVELON-treated patients and 0% of patients on placebo patients.
Dizziness was reported in 2.7% of INOVELON-treated patients compared to 0% of patients on placebo, and did not lead to study discontinuation.
Ataxia and gait disturbance were reported in 5.4% and 1.4% of INOVELON-treated patients, respectively, compared to no patient on placebo. None of these reactions led to study discontinuation.
Accordingly, patients should be advised not to drive or operate machinery until they have gained sufficient experience on INOVELON to gauge whether it adversely affects their ability to drive or operate machinery.
QT Shortening: Formal cardiac ECG studies demonstrated shortening of the QT interval (mean = 20 msec, for doses ≥ 2400 mg twice daily) with INOVELON. In a placebo-controlled study of the QT interval, a higher percentage of INOVELON -treated subjects (46% at 2400 mg, 46% at 3200 mg, and 65% at 4800 mg) had a QT shortening of greater than 20 msec at Tmax compared to placebo (5-10%).
Reductions of the QT interval below 300 msec were not observed in the formal QT studies with doses up to 7200 mg per day. Moreover, there was no signal for drug-induced sudden death or ventricular arrhythmias.
The degree of QT shortening induced by INOVELON is without any known clinical risk. Familial Short QT syndrome is associated with an increased risk of sudden death and ventricular arrhythmias, particularly ventricular fibrillation. Such events in this syndrome are believed to occur primarily when the corrected QT interval falls below 300 msec. Non-clinical data also indicate that QT shortening is associated with ventricular fibrillation.
Patients with Familial Short QT syndrome should not be treated with INOVELON. Caution should be used when administering INOVELON with other drugs that shorten the QT interval (see Contraindications).
Multi-organ Hypersensitivity/Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS): Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS), also known as multi-organ hypersensitivity, has been reported in patients taking antiepileptic drugs, including INOVELON. DRESS may be fatal or life-threatening. DRESS typically, although not exclusively, presents with fever, rash, and/or lymphadenopathy, in association with other organ system involvement, such as hepatitis, nephritis, hematological abnormalities, myocarditis, or myositis, sometimes resembling an acute viral infection. Eosinophilia is often present. It is important to note that early manifestations of hypersensitivity, such as fever or lymphadenopathy, may be present even though rash is not evident. Because this disorder is variable in its expression, other organ systems not noted here may be involved.
All cases of DRESS identified in clinical trials with INOVELON occurred in pediatric patients less than 12 years of age, occurred within 4 weeks of treatment initiation, and resolved or improved with INOVELON discontinuation. DRESS has also been reported in adult and pediatric patients taking INOVELON in the postmarketing setting.
If DRESS is suspected, the patient should be evaluated immediately, INOVELON should be discontinued, and alternative treatment should be started.
Withdrawal of AEDs: As with all antiepileptic drugs, INOVELON should be withdrawn gradually to minimize the risk of precipitating seizures, seizure exacerbation, or status epilepticus. If abrupt discontinuation of the drug is medically necessary, the transition to another AED should be made under close medical supervision. In clinical trials, INOVELON discontinuation was achieved by reducing the dose by approximately 25% every 2 days.
Status Epilepticus: Estimates of the incidence of treatment emergent status epilepticus among patients treated with INOVELON are difficult because standard definitions were not employed. In a controlled Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome trial, 3 of 74 (4.1%) INOVELON-treated patients had episodes that could be described as status epilepticus in the INOVELON-treated patients compared with none of the 64 patients in the placebo-treated patients. In all controlled trials that included patients with different epilepsies, 11 of 1240 (0.9%) INOVELON-treated patients had episodes that could be described as status epilepticus compared with none of 635 patients in the placebo-treated patients.
Leukopenia: INOVELON has been shown to reduce white cell count. Leukopenia (white cell count < 3X109/L) was more commonly observed in INOVELON-treated patients 43 of 1171 (3.7%) than placebo-treated patients, 7 of 579 (1.2%) in all controlled trials.
Use in Specific Populations: Renal Impairment: Rufinamide pharmacokinetics in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min) was similar to that of healthy subjects. Dose adjustment in patients undergoing dialysis should be considered (see Pharmacology under Actions).
Hepatic Impairment: Use of INOVELON in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 10 to 15) is not recommended. Caution should be exercised in treating patients with mild (Child-Pugh score 5 to 6) to moderate (Child-Pugh score 7 to 9) hepatic impairment.
Use in Pregnancy:
Pregnancy Category C: There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. INOVELON should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Rufinamide produced developmental toxicity when administered orally to pregnant animals at clinically relevant doses.
Rufinamide was administered orally to rats at doses of 20, 100, and 300 mg/kg per day and to rabbits at doses of 30, 200, and 1000 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis (implantation to closure of the hard palate); the high doses are associated with plasma AUCs ≈2 times the human plasma AUC at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD, 3200 mg per day). Decreased fetal weights and increased incidences of fetal skeletal abnormalities were observed in rats at doses associated with maternal toxicity. In rabbits, embryo-fetal death, decreased fetal body weights, and increased incidences of fetal visceral and skeletal abnormalities occurred at all but the low dose. The highest dose tested in rabbits was associated with abortion. The no-effect doses for adverse effects on rat and rabbit embryo-fetal development (20 and 30 mg/kg per day, respectively) were associated with plasma AUCs ≈ 0.2 times that in humans at the MRHD.
In a rat pre- and post-natal development study (dosing from implantation through weaning) conducted at oral doses of 5, 30, and 150 mg/kg per day (associated with plasma AUCs up to ≈1.5 times that in humans at the MRHD), decreased offspring growth and survival were observed at all doses tested. A no-effect dose for adverse effects on pre- and post-natal development was not established. The lowest dose tested was associated with plasma AUC < 0.1 times that in humans at the MRHD.
Use in Lactation: Rufinamide is likely to be excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from INOVELON, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Use in Children: Safety and effectiveness have been established in pediatric patients 1 to 7 years of age. The effectiveness of INOVELON in pediatric patients 4 years of age and older was based upon an adequate and well-controlled trial of INOVELON that included both adults and pediatric patients, 4 years of age and older, with Lennox Gastaut Syndrome. The effectiveness in patients in patients 1 to less than 4 years was based upon a bridging pharmacokinetic and safety study (see Dosage & Administration, Adverse Reactions, and Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Clinical Studies under Actions). The pharmacokinetics of rufinamide in the pediatric patients, ages 1 to less than 4 years of age is similar to children older than 4 years of age and adults (see Pharmacology under Actions).
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 1 year has not been established.
Use in Elderly: Clinical studies of INOVELON did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Pharmacokinetics of rufinamide in the elderly are similar to that in the young subjects (see Pharmacology under Actions).
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Use in Pregnancy: Pregnancy Category C: There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. INOVELON should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Rufinamide produced developmental toxicity when administered orally to pregnant animals at clinically relevant doses.
Rufinamide was administered orally to rats at doses of 20, 100, and 300 mg/kg per day and to rabbits at doses of 30, 200, and 1000 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis (implantation to closure of the hard palate); the high doses are associated with plasma AUCs ≈2 times the human plasma AUC at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD, 3200 mg per day). Decreased fetal weights and increased incidences of fetal skeletal abnormalities were observed in rats at doses associated with maternal toxicity. In rabbits, embryo-fetal death, decreased fetal body weights, and increased incidences of fetal visceral and skeletal abnormalities occurred at all but the low dose. The highest dose tested in rabbits was associated with abortion. The no-effect doses for adverse effects on rat and rabbit embryo-fetal development (20 and 30 mg/kg per day, respectively) were associated with plasma AUCs ≈ 0.2 times that in humans at the MRHD.
In a rat pre- and post-natal development study (dosing from implantation through weaning) conducted at oral doses of 5, 30, and 150 mg/kg per day (associated with plasma AUCs up to ≈1.5 times that in humans at the MRHD), decreased offspring growth and survival were observed at all doses tested. A no-effect dose for adverse effects on pre- and post-natal development was not established. The lowest dose tested was associated with plasma AUC < 0.1 times that in humans at the MRHD.
Use in Lactation: Rufinamide is likely to be excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from INOVELON, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Adverse Reactions
The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling: Suicidal Behavior and Ideation (see Precautions).
Central Nervous System Reactions (see Precautions).
QT Shortening (see Precautions).
Multi-Organ Hypersensitivity/Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) (see Precautions).
Leukopenia (see Precautions).
Clinical Trials Experience: Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Adverse Reactions in Adult and Pediatric Patients ages 3 to 17 years of age: In the pooled, double-blind, adjunctive therapy studies in adult and pediatric patients ages 3 to 17 years of age, the most common (≥10%) adverse reactions in INOVELON-treated patients, in all doses studied (200 to 3200 mg per day) with a higher frequency than in patients on placebo were: headache, dizziness, fatigue, somnolence, and nausea.
Table 3 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 3% of pediatric patients (ages 3 to less than 17 years) with epilepsy treated with INOVELON in controlled adjunctive studies and were numerically more common in patients tretaed with INOVELON than in patients on placebo.
At the target dose of 45 mg/kg per day for adjunctive therapy in pediatric patients (ages 3 to less than 17 years), the most common (≥3%) adverse reactions with an incidence greater than in placebo for INOVELON were somnolence, vomiting, and headache. (See Table 3.)

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Table 4 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 3% of adult patients with epilepsy treated with INOVELON (up to 3200 mg per day) in adjunctive controlled studies and were numerically more common in patients treated with INOVELON than in patients on placebo. In these studies, either INOVELON or placebo was added to the current AED therapy.
At all doses studied of up to 3200 mg per day given as adjunctive therapy in adults, the most common (≥3%) adverse reactions, and with the greatest increase in incidence compared to placebo, for INOVELON were dizziness, fatigue, nausea, diplopia, vision blurred, and ataxia. (See Table 4.)

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Discontinuation in Controlled Clinical Studies: In controlled, double-blind, adjunctive clinical studies, 9% of pediatric and adult patients receiving INOVELON as adjunctive therapy and 4% receiving placebo discontinued as a result of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly leading to discontinuation of INOVELON (>1%) used as adjunctive therapy were generally similar in adults and pediatric patients.
In pediatric patients (ages 4 to less than 17 years) double-blind adjunctive clinical studies, 8% of patients receiving INOVELON as adjunctive therapy (at the recommended dose of 45 mg/kg per day) and 2% receiving placebo discontinued as a result of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly leading to discontinuation of INOVELON (>1%) used as adjunctive therapy are presented in Table 5. (See Table 5.)

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In adult double-blind, adjunctive clinical studies, 10% of patients receiving INOVELON as adjunctive therapy (at doses up to 3200 mg per day) and 6% receiving placebo discontinued as a result of an adverse reaction. The adverse reactions most commonly leading to discontinuation of INOVELON (>1%) used as adjunctive therapy are presented in Table 6. (See Table 6.)

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Pediatric Patients ages 1 to less than 4 years: In a multicenter, parallel group, open-label study comparing INOVELON (45 mg/kg per day) adjunctive treatment (n=25) to the adjunctive treatment with an AED of the investigator's choice (n=11) in pediatric patients (1 year to less than 4 years of age) with inadequately controlled Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, the adverse reaction profile was generally similar to that observed in adults and pediatric patients 4 years of age and older treated with INOVELON. Adverse reactions that occurred in at least 2 (8 %) INOVELON-treated patients and with a higher frequency than in the AED comparator group were: vomiting (24%), somnolence (16%), bronchitis (12%), constipation (12%), cough (12%), decreased appetite (12%), rash (12%), otitis media (8%), pneumonia (8%), decreased weight (8%), gastroenteritis (8%), nasal congestion (8%), and pneumonia aspiration (8%).
Other Adverse Reactions Observed During Clinical Trials: INOVELON has been administered to 1978 individuals during all epilepsy clinical trials (placebo-controlled and open-label). Adverse reactions occurring during these studies were recorded by the investigators using terminology of their own choosing. To provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of patients having adverse reactions, these events were grouped into standardized categories using the MedDRA dictionary. Adverse events occurring at least three times and considered possibly related to treatment are included in the System Organ Class listings. Terms not included in the listings are those already included in the tables above, those too general to be informative, those related to procedures, and terms describing events common in the population. Some events occurring fewer than 3 times are also included based on their medical significance. Because the reports include events observed in open-label, uncontrolled observations, the role of INOVELON in their causation cannot be reliably determined.
Events are classified by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency as follows: frequent adverse events-those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse events-those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare-those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients.
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: Frequent: anemia. Infrequent: lymphadenopathy, leukopenia, neutropenia, iron deficiency anemia, thrombocytopenia.
Cardiac Disorders: Infrequent: bundle branch block right, atrioventricular block first degree.
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Frequent: decreased appetite, increased appetite.
Renal and Urinary Disorders: Frequent: pollakiuria. Infrequent: urinary incontinence, dysuria, hematuria, nephrolithiasis, polyuria, enuresis, nocturia, incontinence.
Postmarketing Experience: The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of INOVELON. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Dermatologic: Stevens-Johnson syndrome and other serious skin rashes with mucosal involvement.
Drug Interactions
Effects of INOVELON on other AEDs: Population pharmacokinetic analysis of average concentration at steady state of carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, topiramate, and valproate showed that typical rufinamide Cavss levels had little effect on the pharmacokinetics of other AEDs. Any effects, when they occur, have been more marked in the pediatric population.
Table 7 summarizes the drug-drug interactions of INOVELON with other AEDs. (See Table 7.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Phenytoin: The decrease in clearance of phenytoin estimated at typical levels of rufinamide (Cavss 15 μg/mL) is predicted to increase plasma levels of phenytoin by 7 to 21%. As phenytoin is known to have non-linear pharmacokinetics (clearance becomes saturated at higher doses), it is possible that exposure will be greater than the model prediction.
Effects of Other AEDs on INOVELON: Potent cytochrome P450 enzyme inducers, such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, primidone, and phenobarbital, appear to increase the clearance of INOVELON (see Table 7). Given that the majority of clearance of INOVELON is via a non-CYP-dependent route, the observed decreases in blood levels seen with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, and primidone are unlikely to be entirely attributable to induction of a P450 enzyme. Other factors explaining this interaction are not understood. Any effects, where they occurred, were likely to be more marked in the pediatric population.
Valproate: Patients stabilized on INOVELON before being prescribed valproate should begin valproate therapy at a low dose, and titrate to a clinically effective dose. Similarly, patients on valproate should begin at a INOVELON dose lower than 10 mg/kg per day (pediatric patients) or 400 mg per day (adults) (see Dosage & Administration, Pharmacology under Actions).
Effects of INOVELON on Hormonal Contraceptives: Female patients of childbearing age should be warned that the concurrent use of INOVELON with hormonal contraceptives may render this method of contraception less effective. Additional non-hormonal forms of contraception are recommended when using INOVELON (see Pharmacology under Actions).
Storage
Storage and handling: Do not store above 30°C.
Shelf-Life: 48 months.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
N03AF03 - rufinamide ; Belongs to the class of carboximide derivatives antiepileptic. Used in the management of epilepsy.
Presentation/Packing
FC tab 200 mg (pink, ovaloid-shaped with slightly conves faces, scored on both sides. Engravings "€" and "262" on one side and blank on the other) x 6 x 10's.
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