Kyprolis

Kyprolis Mechanism of Action

carfilzomib

Manufacturer:

Amgen

Distributor:

Zuellig Pharma
The information highlighted (if any) are the most recent updates for this brand.
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Pharmacology: Mechanism of Action: Carfilzomib is a tetrapeptide epoxyketone proteasome inhibitor that irreversibly binds to the N-terminal threonine-containing active sites of the 20S proteasome, the proteolytic core particle within the 26S proteasome. Carfilzomib had antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities in vitro in solid and hematologic tumor cells. In animals, carfilzomib inhibited proteasome activity in blood and tissue and delayed tumor growth in models of multiple myeloma, hematologic, and solid tumors.
Pharmacodynamics: Intravenous carfilzomib administration resulted in suppression of proteasome chymotrypsin-like (CT-L) activity when measured in blood 1 hour after the first dose. Doses of carfilzomib ≥ 15 mg/m2 with or without lenalidomide and dexamethasone induced a ≥ 80% inhibition of the CT-L activity of the proteasome. In addition, carfilzomib, 20 mg/m2 intravenously as a single agent, resulted in a mean inhibition of the low molecular mass polypeptide 2 (LMP2) and multicatalytic endopeptidase complex-like 1 (MECL1) subunits of the proteasome ranging from 26% to 32% and 41% to 49%, respectively. Proteasome inhibition was maintained for ≥ 48 hours following the first dose of carfilzomib for each week of dosing.
CLINICAL STUDIES: In Combination with Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone for Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma: ASPIRE (NCT01080391): ASPIRE was a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial which evaluated the combination of Kyprolis with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRd) versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone (Rd) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who had received 1 to 3 lines of therapy (A line of therapy is a planned course of treatment [including sequential induction, transplantation, consolidation, and/or maintenance] without an interruption for lack of efficacy, such as for relapse or progressive disease). Patients who had the following were excluded from the trial: refractory to bortezomib in the most recent regimen, refractory to lenalidomide and dexamethasone in the most recent regimen, not responding to any prior regimen, creatinine clearance < 50 mL/min, ALT/AST > 3.5 × ULN and bilirubin > 2 × ULN, New York Heart Association Class III to IV congestive heart failure, or myocardial infarction within the last 4 months.
In the KRd arm, Kyprolis was evaluated at a starting dose of 20 mg/m2, which was increased to 27 mg/m2 on Cycle 1, Day 8 onward. Kyprolis was administered as a 10-minute infusion on Days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16 of each 28-day cycle for Cycle 1 through 12. Kyprolis was dosed on Days 1, 2, 15, and 16 of each 28-day cycle from Cycle 13 through 18.
Dexamethasone 40 mg was administered orally or intravenously on Days 1, 8, 15 and 22 of each cycle. Lenalidomide was given 25 mg orally on Days 1 to 21 of each 28-day cycle. The Rd treatment arm had the same regimen for lenalidomide and dexamethasone as the KRd treatment arm. Kyprolis was administered for a maximum of 18 cycles unless discontinued early for disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Lenalidomide and dexamethasone administration could continue until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Concurrent use of thromboprophylaxis and a proton pump inhibitor were required for both arms, and antiviral prophylaxis was required for the KRd arm.
The 792 patients in ASPIRE were randomized 1:1 to the KRd or Rd arm. The demographics and baseline characteristics were well-balanced between the two arms (see Table 1). Only 53% of the patients had testing for genetic mutations; a high-risk genetic mutation was identified for 12% of patients in the KRd arm and in 13% in the Rd arm. (See Table 1.)

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Patients in the KRd arm demonstrated improved PFS compared with those in the Rd arm (HR = 0.69, with 2-sided P-value = 0.0001) as determined using standard International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG)/European Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) response criteria by an Independent Review Committee (IRC). The median PFS was 26.3 months in the KRd arm versus 17.6 months in the Rd arm (see Table 2 and Figure 1).
A pre-planned overall survival (OS) analysis was performed after 246 deaths in the KRd arm and 267 deaths in the Rd arm. The median follow-up was approximately 67 months. A statistically significant advantage in OS was observed in patients in the KRd arm compared to patients in the Rd arm (see Table 2 and Figure 2). (See Table 2.)

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The median duration of response (DOR) was 28.6 months (95% CI: 24.9, 31.3) for the 345 patients achieving a response in the KRd arm and 21.2 months (95% CI: 16.7, 25.8) for the 264 patients achieving a response in the Rd arm. The median time to response was 1 month (range 1 to 14 months) in the KRd arm and 1 month (range 1 to 16 months) in the Rd arm. (See Figures 1 and 2.)

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In Combination with Dexamethasone for Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma: The efficacy of Kyprolis in combination with dexamethasone was evaluated in two open-label randomized trials (ENDEAVOR and A.R.R.O.W.).
ENDEAVOR (NCT01568866): ENDEAVOR was a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial of Kyprolis plus dexamethasone (Kd) versus bortezomib plus dexamethasone (Vd) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who had received 1 to 3 lines of therapy. A total of 929 patients were enrolled and randomized (464 in the Kd arm; 465 in the Vd arm). Randomization was stratified by prior proteasome inhibitor therapy (yes versus no), prior lines of therapy (1 versus 2 or 3), current International Staging System stage (1 versus 2 or 3), and planned route of bortezomib administration. Patients were excluded if they had less than PR to all prior regimens; creatinine clearance < 15 mL/min; hepatic transaminases ≥ 3 × ULN; or left-ventricular ejection fraction < 40% or other significant cardiac conditions.
This trial evaluated Kyprolis at a starting dose of 20 mg/m2, which was increased to 56 mg/m2 on Cycle 1, Day 8 onward. Kyprolis was administered twice weekly as a 30-minute infusion on Days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16 of each 28-day cycle. Dexamethasone 20 mg was administered orally or intravenously on Days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, 16, 22, and 23 of each cycle. In the Vd arm, bortezomib was dosed at 1.3 mg/m2 intravenously or subcutaneously on Days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day cycle, and dexamethasone 20 mg was administered orally or intravenously on Days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12 of each cycle. Concurrent use of thromboprophylaxis was optional, and prophylaxis with an antiviral agent and proton pump inhibitor was required. Of the 465 patients in the Vd arm, 381 received bortezomib subcutaneously. Treatment continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
The demographics and baseline characteristics are summarized in Table 3. (See Table 3.)

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The efficacy of Kyprolis was evaluated by PFS as determined by an IRC using IMWG response criteria. The trial showed a median PFS of 18.7 months in the Kd arm versus 9.4 months in the Vd arm (see Table 4 and Figure 3). (See Figure 3.)

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Other endpoints included OS and overall response rate (ORR).
A pre-planned OS analysis was performed after 189 deaths in the Kd arm and 209 deaths in the Vd arm. The median follow-up was approximately 37 months. A significantly longer OS was observed in patients in the Kd arm compared to patients in the Vd arm (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.96; P-value=0.01). Results are provided in Table 4 and Figure 4. (See Table 4 and Figure 4).

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The median DOR in subjects achieving PR or better was 21.3 months (95% CI: 21.3, not estimable) in the Kd arm and 10.4 months (95% CI: 9.3, 13.8) in the Vd arm. The median time to response was 1 month (range < 1 to 8 months) in both arms.
A.R.R.O.W. (NCT02412878): A.R.R.O.W. was a randomized, open-label, multicenter superiority trial of Kyprolis plus dexamethasone (Kd) once weekly (20/70 mg/m2) versus Kd twice weekly (20/27 mg/m2) in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma who had received 2 to 3 prior lines of therapy. Patients were excluded if they had less than PR to at least one prior line; creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min; hepatic transaminases ≥ 3× ULN; or left-ventricular ejection fraction < 40% or other significant cardiac conditions. A total of 478 patients were enrolled and randomized (240 in 20/70 mg/m2 arm; 238 in 20/27 mg/m2 arm). Randomization was stratified by current International Staging System stage (stage 1 versus stages 2 or 3), refractory to bortezomib treatment (yes versus no), and age (< 65 versus ≥ 65 years).
Arm 1 of this trial evaluated Kyprolis at a starting dose of 20 mg/m2, which was increased to 70 mg/m2 on Cycle 1, Day 8 onward. Arm 1 Kyprolis was administered once weekly as a 30-minute infusion on Days 1, 8 and 15, of each 28-day cycle. Arm 2 of this trial evaluated Kyprolis at a starting dose of 20 mg/m2, which was increased to 27 mg/m2 on Cycle 1, Day 8 onward. Arm 2 Kyprolis was administered twice weekly as a 10-minute infusion on Days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16 of each 28-day cycle. In both regimens, dexamethasone 40 mg was administered orally or intravenously on Days 1, 8, 15 for all cycles and on Day 22 for cycles 1 to 9 only. Concurrent use of thromboprophylaxis was optional, prophylaxis with an antiviral agent was recommended, and prophylaxis with a proton pump inhibitor was required. Treatment continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
The demographics and baseline characteristics are summarized in Table 5. (See Table 5.)

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The efficacy of Kyprolis was evaluated by PFS using IMWG response criteria. Efficacy results are provided in Table 6 and Figure 5. (See Figure 5 and Table 6.)

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The median DOR in subjects achieving PR or better was 15 months (95% CI: 12.2, not estimable) in the Kd 20/70 mg/m2 arm and 13.8 months (95% CI: 9.5, not estimable) in the Kd 20/27 mg/m2 arm. The median time to response was 1.1 months in the Kd 20/70 mg/m2 arm and 1.9 months in the Kd 20/27 mg/m2 arm.
Kyprolis is not approved for twice-weekly 20/27 mg/m2 administration in combination with dexamethasone alone.
In Combination with Intravenous Daratumumab and Dexamethasone for Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma: The efficacy of Kyprolis in combination with daratumumab and dexamethasone (DKd) was evaluated in two open-label clinical trials (CANDOR and EQUULEUS).
CANDOR (NCT03158688): CANDOR was a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial which evaluated the combination of Kyprolis 20/56 mg/m2 twice weekly with intravenous daratumumab and dexamethasone (DKd) versus Kyprolis 20/56 mg/m2 twice weekly and dexamethasone (Kd) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who had received 1 to 3 prior lines of therapy. Patients who had the following were excluded from the trial: known moderate or severe persistent asthma within the past 2 years, known chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with a FEV1 < 50% of predicted normal, and active congestive heart failure. Randomization was stratified by the ISS (stage 1 or 2 vs stage 3) at screening, prior proteasome inhibitor exposure (yes vs no), number of prior lines of therapy (1 vs ≥ 2), or prior cluster differentiation antigen 38 (CD38) antibody therapy (yes vs no).
Kyprolis was administered intravenously over 30 minutes at a dose of 20 mg/m2 in Cycle 1 on Days 1 and 2; at a dose of 56 mg/m2 in Cycle 1 on Days 8, 9, 15 and 16; and on Days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15 and 16 of each 28-day cycle thereafter. Dexamethasone 20 mg was administered orally or intravenously on Days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15 and 16 and then 40 mg orally or intravenously on Day 22 of each 28-day cycle. In the DKd arm, daratumumab was administered intravenously at a dose of 8 mg/kg in Cycle 1 on Days 1 and 2. Thereafter, daratumumab was administered intravenously at a dose of 16 mg/kg on Days 8, 15 and 22 of Cycle 1; Days 1, 8 and 15 and 22 of Cycle 2; Days 1 and 15 of Cycles 3 to 6; and Day 1 for the remaining cycles or until disease progression. For patients > 75 years on a reduced dexamethasone dose of 20 mg, the entire 20 mg dose was given as daratumumab pre-infusion medication on days when daratumumab was administered. Dosing of dexamethasone was otherwise split across days when Kyprolis was administered in both study arms. Treatment was continued in both arms until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
A total of 466 patients were randomized; 312 to the DKd arm and 154 to the Kd arm. The demographics and baseline characteristics are summarized in Table 7. (See Table 7.)

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Efficacy was assessed by an IRC evaluation of PFS using the IMWG response criteria. Efficacy results are provided in Table 8 and Figure 6. The median duration of response has not been reached for the DKd arm and was 16.6 months (13.9, NE) for the Kd arm. The median (min, max) time to response was 1.0 (1, 14) months for the DKd arm and 1.0 (1, 10) months for the Kd arm. (See Figure 6 and Table 8.)

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EQUULEUS (NCT01998971): EQUULEUS was an open-label, multi-cohort trial which evaluated the combination of Kyprolis with intravenous daratumumab and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who had received 1 to 3 prior lines of therapy. Patients who had the following were excluded from the trial: known moderate or severe persistent asthma within the past 2 years, known chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with a FEV1 < 50% of predicted normal, or active congestive heart failure (defined as New York Heart Association Class III-IV).
Kyprolis was administered intravenously over 30 minutes once weekly at a dose of 20 mg/m2 on Cycle 1 Day 1 and escalated to a dose of 70 mg/m2 on Cycle 1, Days 8 and 15; and on Days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28-day cycle. Ten patients were administered daratumumab at a dose of 16 mg/kg intravenously on Cycle 1, Day 1 and the remaining patients were administered daratumumab at a dose of 8 mg/kg intravenously on Cycle 1, Days 1 and 2. Thereafter, daratumumab was administered intravenously at a dose of 16 mg/kg on Days 8, 15 and 22 of Cycle 1; Days 1, 8, 15 and 22 of Cycle 2; Days 1 and 15 of Cycles 3 to 6; and then Day 1 for the remaining cycles of each 28-day cycle. In Cycles 1 and 2, dexamethasone 20 mg was administered orally or intravenously on Days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, 16, 22 and 23; in cycles 3 to 6, dexamethasone 20 mg was administered orally or intravenously on Days 1, 2, 15 and 16 and at a dose of 40 mg on Day 8 and 22; and in cycles 7 and thereafter, dexamethasone 20 mg was administered orally or intravenously on Days 1 and 2 and at a dose of 40 mg on Days 8, 15, and 22. For patients > 75 years of age, dexamethasone 20 mg was administered orally or intravenously weekly after the first week. Treatment continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
The EQUULEUS trial enrolled 85 patients. The demographics and baseline characteristics are summarized in Table 9. (See Table 9.)

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Efficacy results were based on overall response rate using IMWG criteria. Efficacy results are provided in Table 10. The median time to response was 0.95 months (range: 0.9, 14.3). The median duration of response was 28 months (95% CI: 20.5, not estimable). (See Table 10.)

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Monotherapy for Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma: Study PX-171-003 A1 (NCT00511238): Study PX-171-003 A1 was a single-arm, multicenter clinical trial of Kyprolis monotherapy by up to 10-minute infusion. Eligible patients were those with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma who had received at least two prior therapies (including bortezomib and thalidomide and/or lenalidomide) and had ≤ 25% response to the most recent therapy or had disease progression during or within 60 days of the most recent therapy. Patients were excluded from the trial if they were refractory to all prior therapies or had a total bilirubin ≥ 2 × ULN; creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min; New York Heart Association Class III to IV congestive heart failure; symptomatic cardiac ischemia; myocardial infarction within the last 6 months; peripheral neuropathy Grade 3 or 4, or peripheral neuropathy Grade 2 with pain; active infections requiring treatment; or pleural effusion.
Kyprolis was administered intravenously up to 10 minutes on two consecutive days each week for three weeks, followed by a 12-day rest period (28-day treatment cycle), until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or for a maximum of 12 cycles. Patients received 20 mg/m2 at each dose in Cycle 1, and 27 mg/m2 in subsequent cycles. Dexamethasone 4 mg orally or intravenously was administered prior to Kyprolis doses in the first and second cycles.
A total of 266 patients were enrolled. Baseline patient and disease characteristics are summarized in Table 11. (See Table 11.)

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Efficacy was evaluated by ORR as determined by IRC assessment using IMWG criteria. Efficacy results are provided in Table 12. The median DOR was 7.8 months (95% CI: 5.6, 9.2). (See Table 12.)

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Pharmacokinetics: Carfilzomib at doses between 20 mg/m2 and 70 mg/m2 administered as a 30-minute infusion resulted in dose-dependent increases in maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) and area under the curve over time to infinity (AUC0-INF) in patients with multiple myeloma. A dose-dependent increase in Cmax and AUC0-INF was also observed between carfilzomib 20 mg/m2 and 56 mg/m2 as a 2- to 10-minute infusion in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. A 30-minute infusion resulted in a similar AUC0-INF, but 2- to 3-fold lower Cmax than that observed with a 2- to 10-minute infusion at the same dose. There was no evidence of carfilzomib accumulation following repeated administration of carfilzomib 70 mg/m2 as a 30-minute once weekly infusion or 15 and 20 mg/m2 as a 2- to 10-minute twice weekly infusion.
Table 13 lists the estimated mean average daily area under the curve in the first cycle (AUCC1,avg), average daily area under the curve at steady-state (AUCss) and Cmax at the highest dose in the first cycle (Cmax,C1) for the different dosing regimens. (See Table 13.)

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Distribution: The mean steady-state volume of distribution of a 20 mg/m2 dose of carfilzomib was 28 L. Carfilzomib is 97% bound to human plasma proteins over the concentration range of 0.4 to 4 micromolar in vitro.
Elimination: Carfilzomib has a half-life of ≤ 1 hour on Day 1 of Cycle 1 following intravenous doses ≥ 15 mg/m2. The half-life was similar when administered either as a 30-minute infusion or a 2- to 10-minute infusion. The systemic clearance ranged from 151 to 263 L/hour.
Metabolism: Carfilzomib is rapidly metabolized by peptidase cleavage and epoxide hydrolysis were the principal pathways of metabolism. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated mechanisms contribute a minor role in overall carfilzomib metabolism.
Excretion: Approximately 25% of the administered dose of carfilzomib was excreted in urine as metabolites in 24 hours. Urinary and fecal excretion of the parent compound was negligible (0.3% of total dose).
Specific Populations: Age (35-89 years), sex, race or ethnicity (80% White, 11% Black, 6% Asians, 3% Hispanics), and mild to severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance 15-89 mL/min) did not have clinically meaningful effects on the pharmacokinetics of carfilzomib.
Patients with Hepatic Impairment: Compared to patients with normal hepatic function, patients with mild (total bilirubin 1 to 1.5 × ULN and any AST or total bilirubin ≤ ULN and AST > ULN) and moderate (total bilirubin > 1.5 to 3 × ULN and any AST) hepatic impairment had approximately 50% higher carfilzomib AUC. The pharmacokinetics of carfilzomib has not been evaluated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (total bilirubin > 3 × ULN and any AST).
Patients with Renal Impairment: Relative to patients with normal renal function, ESRD patients on hemodialysis showed 33% higher carfilzomib AUC. Since hemodialysis clearance of Kyprolis concentrations has not been studied, the drug should be administered after the hemodialysis procedure.
Drug Interaction Studies: Clinical Studies: Effect of Carfilzomib on Sensitive CYP3A Substrate: Midazolam (a sensitive CYP3A substrate) pharmacokinetics was not affected by concomitant administration of carfilzomib.
In Vitro Studies: Effect of Carfilzomib on Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Enzymes: Carfilzomib showed direct and time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 but did not induce CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in vitro.
Effect of Transporters on Carfilzomib: Carfilzomib is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate in vitro.
Effect of Carfilzomib on Transporters: Carfilzomib inhibits P-gp in vitro. However, given that Kyprolis is administered intravenously and is extensively metabolized, the pharmacokinetics of Kyprolis is unlikely to be affected by P-gp inhibitors or inducers.
NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY: Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility: Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted with carfilzomib.
Carfilzomib was clastogenic in the in vitro chromosomal aberration test in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Carfilzomib was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test and was not clastogenic in the in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.
Fertility studies with carfilzomib have not been conducted. No effects on reproductive tissues were noted during 28-day repeat-dose rat and monkey toxicity studies or in 6-month rat and 9-month monkey chronic toxicity studies.
Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology: Cardiovascular Toxicity: Monkeys administered a single bolus intravenous dose of carfilzomib at 3 mg/kg (approximately 1.3 times recommended dose in humans of 27 mg/m2 based on BSA) experienced hypotension, increased heart rate, and increased serum levels of troponin-T.
Chronic Administration: Repeated bolus intravenous administration of carfilzomib at ≥ 2 mg/kg/dose in rats and 2 mg/kg/dose in monkeys using dosing schedules similar to those used clinically resulted in mortalities that were due to toxicities occurring in the cardiovascular (cardiac failure, cardiac fibrosis, pericardial fluid accumulation, cardiac hemorrhage/degeneration), gastrointestinal (necrosis/hemorrhage), renal (glomerulonephropathy, tubular necrosis, dysfunction), and pulmonary (hemorrhage/inflammation) systems. The dose of 2 mg/kg/dose in rats is approximately half the recommended dose in humans of 27 mg/m2 based on BSA. The dose of 2 mg/kg/dose in monkeys is approximately equivalent to the recommended dose in humans based on BSA.
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