Levetiracetam Sandoz

Levetiracetam Sandoz

levetiracetam

Manufacturer:

Lek Pharma

Distributor:

Zuellig Pharma

Marketer:

Sandoz
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Levetiracetam.
Description
Each film-coated tablet contains 250 mg of levetiracetam.
Each film-coated tablet contains 500 mg of levetiracetam.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Povidone, Microcrystalline Cellulose, Croscarmellose sodium, Crospovidone Type A, Colloidal anhydrous silica, Talc, Magnesium stearate, Hypromellose, Hydroxypropylcellulose, Macrogol, Titanium dioxide.
Additionally 250 mg, 500 mg strength tablets contain the following colorants: 250 mg strength: Indigo carmine.
500 mg strength: Iron oxide (pigment yellow 10, E172).
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antiepileptics, other antiepileptics. ATC code: N03AX14.
The active substance, levetiracetam, is a pyrrolidone derivative (S-enantiomer of α-ethyl-2- oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide), chemically unrelated to existing antiepileptic active substances.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: The mechanism of action of levetiracetam still remains to be fully elucidated but appears to be different from the mechanisms of current antiepileptic medicinal products. In vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that levetiracetam does not alter basic cell characteristics and normal neurotransmission.
In vitro studies show that levetiracetam affects intraneuronal Ca2+ levels by partial inhibition of Ntype Ca2+ currents and by reducing the release of Ca2+ from intraneuronal stores. In addition it partially reverses the reductions in GABA- and glycine-gated currents induced by zinc and β-carbolines. Furthermore, levetiracetam has been shown in in vitro studies to bind to a specific site in rodent brain tissue. This binding site is the synaptic vesicle protein 2A, believed to be involved in vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter exocytosis. Levetiracetam and related analogs show a rank order of affinity for binding to the synaptic vesicle protein 2A which correlates with the potency of their anti-seizure protection in the mouse audiogenic model of epilepsy. This finding suggests that the interaction between levetiracetam and the synaptic vesicle protein 2A seems to contribute to the antiepileptic mechanism of action of the medicinal product.
Pharmacodynamic effects: Levetiracetam induces seizure protection in a broad range of animal models of partial and primary generalised seizures without having a pro-convulsant effect. The primary metabolite is inactive.
In man, an activity in both partial and generalised epilepsy conditions (epileptiform discharge/photoparoxysmal response) has confirmed the broad spectrum pharmacological profile of levetiracetam.
Pharmacokinetics:
Levetiracetam is a highly soluble and permeable compound. The pharmacokinetic profile is linear with low intra- and inter-subject variability. There is no modification of the clearance after repeated administration. There is no evidence for any relevant gender, race or circadian variability. The pharmacokinetic profile is comparable in healthy volunteers and in patients with epilepsy.
Due to its complete and linear absorption, plasma levels can be predicted from the oral dose of levetiracetam expressed as mg/kg bodyweight. Therefore there is no need for plasma level monitoring of levetiracetam.
A significant correlation between saliva and plasma concentrations has been shown in adults and children (ratio of saliva/plasma concentrations ranged from 1 to 1.7 for oral tablet formulation and after 4 hours post-dose for oral solution formulation).
Adults and adolescents: Absorption: Levetiracetam is rapidly absorbed after oral administration. Oral absolute bioavailability is close to 100 %.
Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) are achieved at 1.3 hours after dosing. Steady-state is achieved after two days of a twice daily administration schedule.
Peak concentrations (Cmax) are typically 31 and 43 μg/ml following a single 1,000 mg dose and repeated 1,000 mg twice daily dose, respectively.
The extent of absorption is not altered by food.
Distribution: No tissue distribution data are available in humans.
Neither levetiracetam nor its primary metabolite are significantly bound to plasma proteins (< 10 %).
The volume of distribution of levetiracetam is approximately 0.5 to 0.7 l/kg, a value close to the total body water volume.
Biotransformation: Levetiracetam is not extensively metabolised in humans. The major metabolic pathway (24 % of the dose) is an enzymatic hydrolysis of the acetamide group. Production of the primary metabolite, ucb L057, is not supported by liver cytochrome P450 isoforms. Hydrolysis of the acetamide group was measurable in a large number of tissues including blood cells. The metabolite ucb L057 is pharmacologically inactive.
Two minor metabolites were also identified. One was obtained by hydroxylation of the pyrrolidone ring (1.6 % of the dose) and the other one by opening of the pyrrolidone ring (0.9 % of the dose).
Other unidentified components accounted only for 0.6 % of the dose.
No enantiomeric interconversion was evidenced in vivo for either levetiracetam or its primary metabolite.
Elimination: The plasma half-life in adults was 7±1 hours and did not vary either with dose, route of administration or repeated administration. The mean total body clearance was 0.96 ml/min/kg.
The major route of excretion was via urine, accounting for a mean 95 % of the dose (approximately 93 % of the dose was excreted within 48 hours). Excretion via faeces accounted for only 0.3 % of the dose.
The cumulative urinary excretion of levetiracetam and its primary metabolite accounted for 66 % and 24 % of the dose, respectively during the first 48 hours.
The renal clearance of levetiracetam and ucb L057 is 0.6 and 4.2 ml/min/kg, respectively indicating that levetiracetam is excreted by glomerular filtration with subsequent tubular reabsorption and that the primary metabolite is also excreted by active tubular secretion in addition to glomerular filtration.
Levetiracetam elimination is correlated to creatinine clearance.
Elderly: In the elderly, the half-life is increased by about 40 % (10 to 11 hours). This is related to the decrease in renal function in this population (see Dosage & Administration).
Renal impairment: The apparent body clearance of both levetiracetam and of its primary metabolite is correlated to the creatinine clearance. It is therefore recommended to adjust the maintenance daily dose of levetiracetam, based on creatinine clearance in patients with moderate and severe renal impairment (see Dosage & Administration).
In anuric end-stage renal disease adult subjects the half-life was approximately 25 and 3.1 hours during interdialytic and intradialytic periods, respectively.
The fractional removal of levetiracetam was 51 % during a typical 4-hour dialysis session.
Hepatic impairment: In subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment, there was no relevant modification of the clearance of levetiracetam. In most subjects with severe hepatic impairment, the clearance of levetiracetam was reduced by more than 50 % due to a concomitant renal impairment (see Dosage & Administration).
Paediatric population: Children (4 to 12 years): Following single oral dose administration (20 mg/kg) to epileptic children (6 to 12 years), the half-life of levetiracetam was 6.0 hours. The apparent body weight adjusted clearance was approximately 30 % higher than in epileptic adults.
Following repeated oral dose administration (20 to 60 mg/kg/day) to epileptic children (4 to 12 years), levetiracetam was rapidly absorbed. Peak plasma concentration was observed 0.5 to 1.0 hour after dosing. Linear and dose proportional increases were observed for peak plasma concentrations and area under the curve. The elimination half-life was approximately 5 hours. The apparent body clearance was 1.1 ml/min/kg.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.
Adverse effects not observed in clinical studies but seen in the rat and to a lesser extent in the mouse at exposure levels similar to human exposure levels and with possible relevance for clinical use were liver changes, indicating an adaptive response such as increased weight and centrilobular hypertrophy, fatty infiltration and increased liver enzymes in plasma.
No adverse effects on male or female fertility or reproduction performance were observed in rats at doses up to 1800 mg/kg/day (x 6 the MRHD on a mg/m2 or exposure basis) in parents and F1 generation.
Indications/Uses
Levetiracetam is indicated as monotherapy in the treatment of partial onset seizures with or without secondary generalisation in adults and adolescents from 16 years of age with newly diagnosed epilepsy.
Levetiracetam is indicated as adjunctive therapy: in the treatment of partial onset seizures in adults and children from 4 years of age with epilepsy; in the treatment of myoclonic seizures in adults and adolescents from 12 years of age with Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy; in the treatment of primary generalised tonic-clonic seizures in adults and adolescents from 6 years of age with Idiopathic Generalised Epilepsy.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Posology: Monotherapy for adults and adolescents from 16 years of age: The recommended starting dose is 250 mg twice daily which should be increased to an initial therapeutic dose of 500 mg twice daily after two weeks. The dose can be further increased by 250 mg twice daily every two weeks depending upon the clinical response. The maximum dose is 1500 mg twice daily.
Add-on therapy for adults (≥18 years) and adolescents (12 to 17 years) weighing 50 kg or more: The initial therapeutic dose is 500 mg twice daily. This dose can be started on the first day of treatment.
Depending upon the clinical response and tolerability, the daily dose can be increased up to 1,500 mg twice daily. Dose changes can be made in 500 mg twice daily increases or decreases every two to four weeks.
Special populations: Elderly (65 years and older): Adjustment of the dose is recommended in elderly patients with compromised renal function (see Renal impairment as follows).
Renal impairment: The daily dose must be individualised according to renal function.
For adult patients, refer to the following table and adjust the dose as indicated. To use this dosing table, an estimate of the patient's creatinine clearance (CLcr) in ml/min is needed.
The CLcr in ml/min may be estimated from serum creatinine (mg/dl) determination, for adults and adolescents weighing 50 kg or more, using the following formula: See Equation 1.

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image
Then CLcr is adjusted for body surface area (BSA) as follows: See Equation 2.

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Dosing adjustment for adult and adolescents patients weighing more than 50 kg with impaired renal function: See Table 1.

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

For children with renal impairment, levetiracetam dose needs to be adjusted based on the renal function as levetiracetam clearance is related to renal function. This recommendation is based on a study in adult renally impaired patients.
The CLcr in ml/min/1.73 m2 may be estimated from serum creatinine (mg/dl) determination, for young adolescents, children and infants, using the following formula (Schwartz formula): See Equation 3.

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Hepatic impairment: No dose adjustment is needed in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. In patients with severe hepatic impairment, the creatinine clearance may underestimate the renal insufficiency.
Therefore a 50% reduction of the daily maintenance dose is recommended when the creatinine clearance is < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2.
Paediatric population: The physician should prescribe the most appropriate pharmaceutical form, presentation and strength according to age, weight and dose.
The tablet formulation is not adapted for use in infants and children under the age of 6 years.
Monotherapy: The safety and efficacy of Levetiracetam in children and adolescents below 16 years as monotherapy treatment have not been established.
There are no data available.
Add-on therapy for children (4 to 11 years) and adolescents (12 to 17 years) weighing less than 50 kg: The initial therapeutic dose is 10 mg/kg twice daily.
Depending upon the clinical response and tolerability, the dose can be increased up to 30 mg/kg twice daily. Dose changes should not exceed increases or decreases of 10 mg/kg twice daily every two weeks. The lowest effective dose should be used.
Dose in children 50 kg or greater is the same as in adults.
Dose recommendations for children and adolescents: See Table 2.

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

Method of administration: The film-coated tablets must be taken orally, swallowed with a sufficient quantity of liquid and may be taken with or without food. The daily dose is administered in two equally divided doses.
Overdosage
Symptoms: Somnolence, agitation, aggression, depressed level of consciousness, respiratory depression and coma were observed with levetiracetam overdoses.
Management of overdose: After an acute overdose, the stomach may be emptied by gastric lavage or by induction of emesis.
There is no specific antidote for levetiracetam. Treatment of an overdose will be symptomatic and may include haemodialysis. The dialyser extraction efficiency is 60 % for levetiracetam and 74 % for the primary metabolite.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or other pyrrolidone derivatives or to any of the excipients listed in Description.
Special Precautions
Discontinuation: In accordance with current clinical practice, if levetiracetam has to be discontinued it is recommended to withdraw it gradually (e.g. in adults and adolescents weighing more than 50 kg: 500 mg decreases twice daily every two to four weeks; in infants older than 6 months, children and adolescents weighing less than 50 kg: dose decrease should not exceed 10 mg/kg twice daily every two weeks; in infants (less than 6 months): dose decrease should not exceed 7 mg/kg twice daily every two weeks).
Renal impairment: The administration of levetiracetam to patients with renal impairment may require dose adjustment. In patients with severely impaired hepatic function, assessment of renal function is recommended before dose selection (see Dosage & Administration).
Acute kidney injury: The use of levetiracetam has been very rarely associated with acute kidney injury with a time to onset ranging from a few days to several months.
Blood cell counts: Rare cases of decreased blood cell counts (neutropenia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and pancytopenia) have been described in association with levetiracetam administration, generally at the beginning of the treatment. Complete blood cell counts are advised in patients experiencing important weakness, pyrexia, recurrent infections or coagulation disorders (Adverse Reactions).
Suicide: Suicide, suicide attempt, suicidal ideation and behaviour have been reported in patients treated with anti-epileptic agents (including levetiracetam). A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials of anti-epileptic medicinal products has shown a small increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviour. The mechanism of this risk is not known.
Therefore, patients should be monitored for signs of depression and/or suicidal ideation and behaviours and appropriate treatment should be considered. Patients (and caregivers of patients) should be advised to seek medical advice should signs of depression and/or suicidal ideation or behaviour emerge.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Levetiracetam has minor or moderate influence on the ability to drive and use machines.
Due to possible different individual sensitivity, some patients might experience somnolence or other central nervous system related symptoms, especially at the beginning of treatment or following a dose increase. Therefore, caution is recommended in those patients when performing skilled tasks, e.g. driving vehicles or operating machinery. Patients are advised not to drive or use machines until it is established that their ability to perform such activities is not affected.
Use in Children: The tablet formulation is not adapted for use in infants and children under the age of 6 years.
Available data in children did not suggest impact on growth and puberty. However, long term effects on learning, intelligence, growth, endocrine function, puberty and childbearing potential in children remain unknown.
The safety and efficacy of levetiracetam has not been thoroughly assessed in infants with epilepsy aged less than 1 year. Only 35 infants aged less than 1 year with partial onset seizures have been exposed in clinical studies of which only 13 were aged < 6 months.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: There are no adequate data available from the use of levetiracetam in pregnant women.
Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions). The potential risk for human is unknown.
Levetiracetam is not recommended during pregnancy and in women of childbearing potential not using contraception unless clearly necessary.
As with other antiepileptic medicinal products, physiological changes during pregnancy may affect levetiracetam concentration. Decrease in levetiracetam plasma concentrations has been observed during pregnancy. This decrease is more pronounced during the third trimester (up to 60% of baseline concentration before pregnancy). Appropriate clinical management of pregnant women treated with levetiracetam should be ensured.
Discontinuation of antiepileptic treatments may result in exacerbation of the disease which could be harmful to the mother and the foetus.
Breastfeeding:
Levetiracetam is excreted in human breast milk. Therefore, breast-feeding is not recommended.
However, if levetiracetam treatment is needed during breastfeeding, the benefit/risk of the treatment should be weighed considering the importance of breastfeeding.
Fertility: No impact on fertility was detected in animal studies (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions). No clinical data are available, potential risk for human is unknown.
Adverse Reactions
Summary of the safety profile: The most frequently reported adverse reactions were nasopharyngitis, somnolence, headache, fatigue and dizziness.
The adverse reaction profile presented as follows is based on the analysis of pooled placebo­-controlled clinical trials with all indications studied, with a total of 3,416 patients treated with levetiracetam.
These data are supplemented with the use of levetiracetam in corresponding open-label extension studies, as well as post-marketing experience. The safety profile of levetiracetam is generally similar across age groups (adult and paediatric patients) and across the approved epilepsy indications.
List of adverse reactions: Adverse reactions reported in clinical studies (adults, adolescents, children and infants > 1 month) and from post-marketing experience are listed per System Organ Class and per frequency. Adverse reactions are presented in the order of decreasing seriousness and their frequency is defined as follows: very common (≥1/10); common (≥1/100 to <1/10); uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100); rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000) and very rare (<1/10,000).
Infections and infestations: Very common: Nasopharyngitis.
Rare: Infection.
Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Uncommon: Thrombocytopenia, leukopenia.
Rare: Pancytopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis.
Immune system disorders: Rare: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic sysmptoms (DRESS), hypersensitivity (including angioedema and anaphylaxis).
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: Common: Anorexia.
Uncommon: Weight decreased, weight increase.
Rare: Hyponatraemia.
Psychiatric disorders: Common: Depression, hostility/aggression, anxiety, insomnia, nervousness/irritability.
Uncommon: Suicide attempt, suicidal ideation, psychotic disorder, abnormal behaviour, hallucination, anger, confusional state, panic attack, affect lability/mood swings, agitation.
Rare: Completed suicide, personality disorder, thinking abnormal, delirium.
Nervous system disorders:
Very common: Somnolence, headache.
Common: Convulsion, balance disorder, dizziness, lethargy, tremor.
Uncommon: Amnesia, memory impairment, coordination abnormal/ataxia, paraesthesia, disturbance in attention.
Rare: Choreoathetosis, dyskinesia, hyperkinesia, gait disturbance.
Eye disorders: Uncommon: Diplopia, vision blurred.
Ear and labyrinth disorders: Common: Vertigo.
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Common: Cough.
Gastrointestinal disorders: Common: Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, vomiting, nausea.
Rare: Pancreatitis.
Hepatobiliary disorders: Uncommon: Liver function test abnormal.
Rare: Hepatic failure, hepatitis.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Common: Rash.
Uncommon: Alopecia, eczema, pruritus.
Rare: Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme.
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: Uncommon: Muscular weakness, myalgia.
Rare: Rhabdomyolysis and blood creatine phosphokinase increased*.
Renal and urinary disorders: Rare: Acute kidney injury.
General disorders and administration site conditions: Common: Asthenia/fatigue.
Injury, poisoning and procedural complications: Uncommon: Injury.
* Prevalence is significantly higher in Japanese patients when compared to non-Japanese patients.
Description of selected adverse reactions: The risk of anorexia is higher when topiramate is coadministered with levetiracetam.
In several cases of alopecia, recovery was observed when levetiracetam was discontinued. Bone marrow suppression was identified in some of the cases of pancytopenia.
Cases of encephalopathy generally occurred at the beginning of the treatment (few days to a few months) and were reversible after treatment discontinuation.
Paediatric population: In patients aged 1 month to less than 4 years, a total of 190 patients have been treated with levetiracetam in placebo-controlled and open label extension studies. Sixty of these patients were treated with levetiracetam in placebo-controlled studies. In patients aged 4-16 years, a total of 645 patients have been treated with levetiracetam in placebo-controlled and open label extension studies. 233 of these patients were treated with levetiracetam in placebo-controlled studies. In both these paediatric age ranges, these data are supplemented with the post-marketing experience of the use of levetiracetam.
In addition, 101 infants aged less than 12 months have been exposed in a post-authorisation safety study. No new safety concerns for levetiracetam were identified for infants less than 12 months of age with epilepsy.
The adverse reaction profile of levetiracetam is generally similar across age groups and across the approved epilepsy indications. Safety results in paediatric patients in placebo-controlled clinical studies were consistent with the safety profile of levetiracetam in adults except for behavioural and psychiatric adverse reactions which were more common in children than in adults. In children and adolescents aged 4 to 16 years, vomiting (very common, 11.2%), agitation (common, 3.4%), mood swings (common, 2.1%), affect lability (common, 1.7%), aggression (common, 8.2%), abnormal behaviour (common, 5.6%), and lethargy (common, 3.9%) were reported more frequently than in other age ranges or in the overall safety profile. In infants and children aged 1 month to less than 4 years, irritability (very common, 11.7%) and coordination abnormal (common, 3.3%) were reported more frequently than in other age groups or in the overall safety profile.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled paediatric safety study with a non-inferiority design has assessed the cognitive and neuropsychological effects of levetiracetam in children 4 to 16 years of age with partial onset seizures. It was concluded that levetiracetam was not different (non inferior) from placebo with regard to the change from baseline of the Leiter-R Attention and Memory, Memory Screen Composite score in the per-protocol population. Results related to behavioral and emotional functioning indicated a worsening in levetiracetam treated patients on aggressive behavior as measured in a standardised and systematic way using a validated instrument (CBCL - Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist). However subjects, who took levetiracetam in the long-term open label follow-up study, did not experience a worsening, on average, in their behavioural and emotional functioning; in particular measures of aggressive behavior were not worse than baseline.
Drug Interactions
Antiepileptic medicinal products: Pre-marketing data from clinical studies conducted in adults indicate that levetiracetam did not influence the serum concentrations of existing antiepileptic medicinal products (phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, phenobarbital, lamotrigine, gabapentin and primidone) and that these antiepileptic medicinal products did not influence the pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam.
As in adults, there is no evidence of clinically significant medicinal product interactions in paediatric patients receiving up to 60 mg/kg/day levetiracetam.
A retrospective assessment of pharmacokinetic interactions in children and adolescents with epilepsy (4 to 17 years) confirmed that adjunctive therapy with orally administered levetiracetam did not influence the steady-state serum concentrations of concomitantly administered carbamazepine and valproate. However, data suggested a 20 % higher levetiracetam clearance in children taking enzyme-inducing antiepileptic medicinal products. Dose adjustment is not required.
Probenecid: Probenecid (500 mg four times daily), a renal tubular secretion blocking agent, has been shown to inhibit the renal clearance of the primary metabolite, but not of levetiracetam.
Nevertheless, the concentration of this metabolite remains low. It is expected that other medicinal products excreted by active tubular secretion could also reduce the renal clearance of the metabolite. The effect of levetiracetam on probenecid was not studied and the effect of levetiracetam on other actively secreted medicinal products, e.g. NSAIDs, sulfonamides is unknown.
Methotrexate: Concomitant administration of levetiracetam and methotrexate has been reported to decrease methotrexate clearance, resulting in increased/prolonged blood methotrexate concentration to potentially toxic levels. Blood methotrexate and levetiracetam levels should be carefully monitored in patients treated concomitantly with the two medicinal products.
Oral contraceptives and other pharmacokinetics interactions: Levetiracetam 1,000 mg daily did not influence the pharmacokinetics of oral contraceptives (ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel); endocrine parameters (luteinizing hormone and progesterone) were not modified.
Levetiracetam 2,000 mg daily did not influence the pharmacokinetics of digoxin and warfarin; prothrombin times were not modified. Co-administration with digoxin, oral contraceptives and warfarin did not influence the pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam.
Antacids: No data on the influence of antacids on the absorption of levetiracetam are available.
Laxatives: There have been isolated reports of decreased levetiracetam efficacy when the osmotic laxative macrogol has been concomitantly administered with oral levetiracetam. Therefore, macrogol should not be taken orally for one hour before and for one hour after taking levetiracetam.
Food and alcohol: The extent of absorption of levetiracetam was not altered by food, but the rate of absorption was slightly reduced.
No data on the interaction of levetiracetam with alcohol are available.
Caution For Usage
Incompatibilities: Not applicable.
Special precautions for disposal: No special requirements.
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirement.
Storage
Do not store above 30°C.
Store in the original container in order to protect from light.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
N03AX14 - levetiracetam ; Belongs to the class of other antiepileptics.
Presentation/Packing
FC tab 250 mg (light blue, oval, biconvex, scored on both sides, debossed with LVT and 250 on one side) x 30's. 500 mg (yellow, oval, biconvex, scored on both sides, debossed with LVT and 500 on one side) x 60's.
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