Mycophenolate Mofetil Tecnigen

Mycophenolate Mofetil Tecnigen

mycophenolic acid

Manufacturer:

Kocak

Distributor:

Symgens

Marketer:

Symgens
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Mycophenolate mofetil.
Description
Each tablet contains 500 mg mycophenolate mofetil.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Tablet nucleus: Cellulose, microcrystalline, croscarmellose sodium, povidone, magnesium stearate. Tablet coating: Hypromellose 3 cP, hydroxypropylcellulose, titanium dioxide (E171), macrogol 400, hypromellose 50 cP, indigo carmine aluminium lake (E132), red iron oxide (E172) (Opadry Y-5R-10272-A Lavander).
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic Group: Immunosuppressive agents. ATC Code: L04AA06.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mycophenolate mofetil is the 2-morpholinoethyl ester of MPA. MPA is a potent, selective, uncompetitive and reversible inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, and therefore inhibits the de novo pathway of guanosine nucleotide synthesis without incorporation into DNA.
Because T- and B-lymphocytes are critically dependent for their proliferation on de novo synthesis of purines whereas other cell types can utilise salvage pathways, MPA has more potent cytostatic effects on lymphocytes than on other cells.
Pharmacokinetics: Following oral administration, mycophenolate mofetil undergoes rapid and extensive absorption and complete presystemic metabolism to the active metabolite, MPA. As evidenced by suppression of acute rejection following renal transplantation, the immunosuppressant activity of mycophenolate mofetil is correlated with MPA concentration. The mean bioavailability of oral mycophenolate mofetil, based on MPA AUC, is 94 % relative to IV mycophenolate mofetil. Food had no effect on the extent of absorption (MPA AUC) of mycophenolate mofetil when administered at doses of 1.5 g BID to renal transplant patients. However, MPA Cmax was decreased by 40 % in the presence of food.
Mycophenolate mofetil is not measurable systemically in plasma following oral administration. MPA at clinically relevant concentrations is 97% bound to plasma albumin.
As a result of enterohepatic recirculation, secondary increases in plasma MPA concentration are usually observed at approximately 6-12 hours post-dose. A reduction in the AUC of MPA of approximately 40 % is associated with the co-administration of cholestyramine (4 g TID), indicating that there is a significant amount of enterohepatic recirculation.
MPA is metabolised principally by glucuronyl transferase to form the phenolic glucuronide of MPA (MPAG), which is not pharmacologically active.
A negligible amount of substance is excreted as MPA (<1 % of dose) in the urine. Orally administered radiolabelled mycophenolate mofetil results in complete recovery of the administered dose with 93 % of the administered dose recovered in the urine and 6 % recovered in the faeces. Most (about 87 %) of the administered dose is excreted in the urine as MPAG.
At clinically encountered concentrations, MPA and MPAG are not removed by haemodialysis. However, at high MPAG plasma concentrations (> 100μg/ml), small amounts of MPAG are removed.
In the early post-transplant period (< 40 days post-transplant), renal, cardiac and hepatic transplant patients had mean MPA AUCs approximately 30 % lower and Cmax approximately 40 % lower compared to the late post- transplant period (3-6 months post-transplant).
Renal impairment: In a single dose study (6 subjects/group), mean plasma MPA AUC observed in subjects with severe chronic renal impairment (glomerular filtration rate < 25 ml•min-1•1.73 m-2) were 28-75 % higher relative to the means observed in normal healthy subjects or subjects with lesser degrees of renal impairment. However, the mean single dose MPAG AUC was 3-6-fold higher in subjects with severe renal impairment than in subjects with mild renal impairment or normal healthy subjects, consistent with the known renal elimination of MPAG. Multiple dosing of mycophenolate mofetil in patients with severe chronic renal impairment has not been studied. No data are available for cardiac or hepatic transplant patients with severe chronic renal impairment.
Delayed renal graft function: In patients with delayed renal graft function post-transplant, mean MPA AUC (0-12h) was comparable to that seen in post-transplant patients without delayed graft function. Mean plasma MPAG AUC (0-12h) was 2-3-fold higher than in post-transplant patients without delayed graft function.
There may be a transient increase in the free fraction and concentration of plasma MPA in patients with delayed renal graft function. Dose adjustment of mycophenolate mofetil does not appear to be necessary.
Hepatic impairment: In volunteers with alcoholic cirrhosis, hepatic MPA glucuronidation processes were relatively unaffected by hepatic parenchymal disease. Effects of hepatic disease on this process probably depend on the particular disease. However, hepatic disease with predominantly biliary damage, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, may show a different effect.
Children and adolescents (aged 2 to 18 years): Pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated in 49 paediatric renal transplant patients given 600 mg/m2 mycophenolate mofetil orally twice daily. This dose achieved MPA AUC values similar to those seen in adult renal transplant patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil at a dose of 1 g bid in the early and late post11 transplant period. MPA AUC values across age groups were similar in the early and late posttransplant period.
Elderly patients (≥ 65 years): Pharmacokinetic behaviour of mycophenolate mofetil in the elderly has not been formally evaluated.
Oral contraceptives: The pharmacokinetics of oral contraceptives were unaffected by coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil (see Interactions). A study of the coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil (1 g bid) and combined oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol (0.02 mg to 0.04 mg) and levonorgestrel (0.05 mg to 0.15 mg), desogestrel (0.15 mg) or gestodene (0.05 mg to 0.10 mg) conducted in 18 non-transplant women (not taking other immunosupressants) over 3 consecutive menstrual cycles showed no clinically relevant influence of mycophenolate mofetil on the ovulation suppressing action of the oral contraceptives.
Serum levels of LH, FSH and progesterone were not significantly affected.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: In experimental models, mycophenolate mofetil was not tumourigenic. The highest dose tested in the animal carcinogenicity studies resulted in approximately 2-3 times the systemic exposure (AUC or Cmax) observed in renal transplant patients at the recommended clinical dose of 2 g/day and 1.3-2 times the systemic exposure (AUC or Cmax) observed in cardiac transplant patients at the recommended clinical dose of 3 g/day.
Two genotoxicity assays (in vitro mouse lymphoma assay and in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus test) showed a potential of mycophenolate mofetil to cause chromosomal aberrations.
These effects can be related to the pharmacodynamic mode of action, i.e. inhibition of nucleotide synthesis in sensitive cells. Other in vitro tests for detection of gene mutation did not demonstrate genotoxic activity.
Mycophenolate mofetil had no effect on fertility of male rats at oral doses up to 20 mg•kg-1•day-1. The systemic exposure at this dose represents 2-3 times the clinical exposure at the recommended clinical dose of 2 g/day in renal transplant patients and 1.3-2 times the clinical exposure at the recommended clinical dose of 3 g/day in cardiac transplant patients. In a female fertility and reproduction study conducted in rats, oral doses of 4.5 mg•kg-1•day-1 caused malformations (including anophthalmia, agnathia, and hydrocephaly) in the first generation offspring in the absence of maternal toxicity. The systemic exposure at this dose was approximately 0.5 times the clinical exposure at the recommended clinical dose of 2 g/day for renal transplant patients and approximately 0.3 times the clinical exposure at the recommended clinical dose of 3 g/day for cardiac transplant patients. No effects on fertility or reproductive parameters were evident in the dams or in the subsequent generation.
In teratology studies in rats and rabbits, foetal resorptions and malformations occurred in rats at 6 mg•kg-1•day-1 (including anophthalmia, agnathia, and hydrocephaly) and in rabbits at 90 mg•kg-1•day-1 (including cardiovascular and renal anomalies, such as ectopia cordis and ectopic kidneys, and diaphragmatic and umbilical hernia), in the absence of maternal toxicity. The systemic exposure at these levels is approximately equivalent to or less than 0.5 times the clinical exposure at the recommended clinical dose of 2 g/day for renal transplant patients and approximately 0.3 times the clinical exposure at the recommended clinical dose of 3 g/day for cardiac transplant patients.
Refer to Use in Pregnancy & Lactation.
The haematopoietic and lymphoid systems were the primary organs affected in toxicology studies conducted with mycophenolate mofetil in the rat, mouse, dog and monkey. These effects occurred at systemic exposure levels that are equivalent to or less than the clinical exposure at the recommended dose of 2 g/day for renal transplant recipients.
Gastrointestinal effects were observed in the dog at systemic exposure levels equivalent to or less than the clinical exposure at the recommended dose. Gastrointestinal and renal effects consistent with dehydration were also observed in the monkey at the 12 highest dose (systemic exposure levels equivalent to or greater than clinical exposure). The nonclinical toxicity profile of mycophenolate mofetil appears to be consistent with adverse events observed in human clinical trials which now provide safety data of more relevance to the patient population (see Adverse Reactions).
Indications/Uses
Mycophenolate mofetil is indicated in combination with ciclosporin and corticosteroids for the prophylaxis of acute transplant rejection in patients receiving allogeneic renal, cardiac or hepatic transplants.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Treatment with mycophenolate mofetil should be initiated and maintained by appropriately qualified transplant specialists.
Use in renal transplant: Adults: oral mycophenolate mofetil should be initiated within 72 hours following transplantation. The recommended dose in renal transplant patients is 1 g administered twice daily (2 g daily dose).
Children (< 2 years): there are limited safety and efficacy data in children below the age of 2 years. These are insufficient to make dosage recommendations and therefore use in this age group is not recommended.
Use in cardiac transplant: Adults: oral mycophenolate mofetil should be initiated within 5 days following transplantation. The recommended dose in cardiac transplant patients is 1.5 g administered twice daily (3 g daily dose).
Children: no data are available for paediatric cardiac transplant patients.
Use in hepatic transplant: Adults: IV mycophenolate mofetil should be administered for the first 4 days following hepatic transplant, with oral mycophenolate mofetil initiated as soon after this as it can be tolerated. The recommended oral dose in hepatic transplant patients is 1.5 g administered twice daily (3 g daily dose).
Children: no data are available for paediatric hepatic transplant patients.
Use in elderly (≥ 65 years): the recommended dose of 1 g administered twice a day for renal transplant patients and 1.5 g twice a day for cardiac or hepatic transplant patients is appropriate for the elderly.
Use in renal impairment: in renal transplant patients with severe chronic renal impairment (glomerular filtration rate < 25 ml•min-1•1.73 m-2), outside the immediate post-transplant period, doses greater than 1 g administered twice a day should be avoided. These patients should also be carefully observed.
No dose adjustments are needed in patients experiencing delayed renal graft function post-operatively (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). No data are available for cardiac or hepatic transplant patients with severe chronic renal impairment.
Use in severe hepatic impairment: no dose adjustments are needed for renal transplant patients with severe hepatic parenchymal disease. No data are available for cardiac transplant patients with severe hepatic parenchymal disease.
Treatment during rejection episodes: MPA (mycophenolic acid) is the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil. Renal transplant rejection does not lead to changes in MPA pharmacokinetics; dosage reduction or interruption of mycophenolate mofetil is not required. There is no basis for mycophenolate mofetil dose adjustment following cardiac transplant rejection. No pharmacokinetic data are available during hepatic transplant rejection.
Overdosage
Reports of overdoses with mycophenolate mofetil have been received from clinical trials and during post-marketing experience. In many of these cases, no adverse events were reported. In those overdose cases in which adverse events were reported, the events fall within the known safety profile of the medicinal product.
It is expected that an overdose of mycophenolate mofetil could possibly result in oversuppression of the immune system and increase susceptibility to infections and bone marrow suppression (see Precautions). If neutropenia develops, dosing with mycophenolate mofetil should be interrupted or the dose reduced (see Precautions).
Haemodialysis would not be expected to remove clinically significant amounts of MPA or MPAG. Bile acid sequestrants, such as cholestyramine, can remove MPA by decreasing the enterohepatic recirculation of the drug (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity reactions to mycophenolate mofetil have been observed (see Adverse Reactions). Therefore, mycophenolate mofetil is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to mycophenolate mofetil or mycophenolic acid.
Mycophenolate mofetil is contraindicated in women who are breastfeeding (see Use in Pregnancy & Lactation).
For information on use in pregnancy and contraceptive requirements see Use in Pregnancy & Lactation.
Special Precautions
Patients receiving immunosuppressive regimens involving combinations of medicinal products, including mycophenolate mofetil, are at increased risk of developing lymphomas and other malignancies, particularly of the skin (see Adverse Reactions). The risk appears to be related to the intensity and duration of immunosuppression rather than to the use of any specific agent. As general advice to minimise the risk for skin cancer, exposure to sunlight and UV light should be limited by wearing protective clothing and using a sunscreen with a high protection factor.
Patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil should be instructed to report immediately any evidence of infection, unexpected bruising, bleeding or any other manifestation of bone marrow depression.
Patients treated with immunosuppressants, including mycophenolate mofetil, are at increased risk for opportunistic infections (bacterial, fungal, viral and protozoal), fatal infections and sepsis (see Adverse Reactions). Among the opportunistic infections are BK virus associated nephropathy and JC virus associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). These infections are often related to a high total immunosuppressive burden and may lead to serious or fatal conditions that physicians should consider in the differential diagnosis in immunosuppressed patients with deteriorating renal function or neurological symptoms.
Patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil should be monitored for neutropenia, which may be related to mycophenolate mofetil itself, concomitant medications, viral infections, or some combination of these causes.
Patients taking mycophenolate mofetil should have complete blood counts weekly during the first month, twice monthly for the second and third months of treatment, then monthly through the first year. If neutropenia develops (absolute neutrophil count < 1.3 x 103/μl), it may be appropriate to interrupt or discontinue mycophenolate mofetil.
Cases of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) have been reported in patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil in combination with other immunosuppressants. The mechanism for mycophenolate mofetil induced PRCA is unknown. PRCA may resolve with dose reduction or cessation of mycophenolate mofetil therapy. Changes to mycophenolate mofetil therapy should only be undertaken under appropriate supervision in transplant recipients in order to minimise the risk of graft rejection (see Adverse Reactions).
Patients should be advised that during treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, vaccinations may be less effective and the use of live attenuated vaccines should be avoided (see Interactions). Influenza vaccination may be of value. Prescribers should refer to national guidelines for influenza vaccination.
Because mycophenolate mofetil has been associated with an increased incidence of digestive system adverse events, including infrequent cases of gastrointestinal tract ulceration, haemorrhage and perforation, mycophenolate mofetil should be administered with caution in patients with active serious digestive system disease.
Mycophenolate mofetil is an IMPDH (inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase) inhibitor. On theoretical grounds, therefore, it should be avoided in patients with rare hereditary deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HGPRT) such as Lesch-Nyhan and Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome.
It is recommended that mycophenolate mofetil should not be administered concomitantly with azathioprine because such concomitant administration has not been studied.
In view of the significant reduction in the AUC of MPA by cholestyramine, caution should be used in the concomitant administration of mycophenolate mofetil with medicinal products that interfere with enterohepatic recirculation because of the potential to reduce the efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil.
The risk: benefit of mycophenolate mofetil in combination with tacrolimus or sirolimus has not been established (see Interactions).
Effects on the Ability to Drive or Operate Machinery: No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. The pharmacodyanmic profile and the reported adverse reactions indicate that an effect is unlikely.
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
It is recommended that mycophenolate mofetil therapy should not be initiated until a negative pregnancy test has been obtained. Effective contraception must be used before beginning mycophenolate mofetil therapy, during therapy, and for six weeks following discontinuation of therapy (see Interactions). Patients should be instructed to consult their physician immediately should pregnancy occur.
The use of mycophenolate mofetil is not recommended during pregnancy and should be reserved for cases where no more suitable alternative treatment is available. mycophenolate mofetil should be used in pregnant women only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the foetus. There is limited data from the use of mycophenolate mofetil in pregnant women. However, congenital malformations including ear malformations, i.e. abnormally formed or absent external/middle ear, have been reported in children of patients exposed to mycophenolate mofetil in combination with other immunosuppressants during pregnancy. Cases of spontaneous abortions have been reported in patients exposed to mycophenolate mofetil. Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical Safety Data under Actions).
Mycophenolate mofetil has been shown to be excreted in the milk of lactating rats. It is not known whether this substance is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions to mycophenolate mofetil in breast-fed infants, mycophenolate mofetil is contraindicated in nursing mothers (see Contraindications).
Adverse Reactions
The following undesirable effects cover adverse reactions from clinical trials: The principal adverse reactions associated with the administration of mycophenolate mofetil in combination with ciclosporin and corticosteroids include diarrhoea, leucopenia, sepsis and vomiting, and there is evidence of a higher frequency of certain types of infections (see Precautions).
Malignancies: Patients receiving immunosuppressive regimens involving combinations of medicinal products, including mycophenolate mofetil, are at increased risk of developing lymphomas and other malignancies, particularly of the skin (see Precautions). Lymphoproliferative disease or lymphoma developed in 0.6 % of patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil (2 g or 3 g daily) in combination with other immunosuppressants in controlled clinical trials of renal (2 g data), cardiac and hepatic transplant patients followed for at least 1 year. Non-melanoma skin carcinomas occurred in 3.6 % of patients; other types of malignancy occurred in 1.1 % of patients. Three-year safety data in renal and cardiac transplant patients did not reveal any unexpected changes in incidence of malignancy compared to the 1-year data. Hepatic transplant patients were followed for at least 1 year, but less than 3 years.
Opportunistic infections: All transplant patients are at increased risk of opportunistic infections; the risk increased with total immunosuppressive load (see Precautions). The most common opportunistic infections in patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil (2 g or 3 g daily) with other immunosuppressants in controlled clinical trials of renal (2 g data), cardiac and hepatic transplant patients followed for at least 1 year were candida mucocutaneous, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) viraemia/syndrome and Herpes simplex. The proportion of patients with CMV viraemia/syndrome was 13.5 %.
Children and adolescents (aged 2 to 18 years): The type and frequency of adverse reactions in a clinical study, which recruited 92 paediatric patients aged 2 to 18 years who were given 600 mg/m2 mycophenolate mofetil orally twice daily, were generally similar to those observed in adult patients given 1 g mycophenolate mofetil twice daily. However, the following treatment-related adverse events were more frequent in the paediatric population, particularly in children under 6 years of age, when compared to adults: diarrhoea, sepsis, leucopenia, anaemia and infection.
Elderly patients (≥ 65 years): Elderly patients (≥ 65 years) may generally be at increased risk of adverse reactions due to immunosuppression. Elderly patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil as part of a combination immunosuppressive regimen, may be at increased risk of certain infections (including cytomegalovirus tissue invasive disease) and possibly gastrointestinal haemorrhage and pulmonary oedema, compared to younger individuals.
Other adverse reactions: Adverse reactions, probably or possibly related to mycophenolate mofetil, reported in ≥1/10 and in ≥1/100 to<1/10 of patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil in the controlled clinical trials of renal (2 g data), cardiac and hepatic transplant patients are listed in the following table. (See Table.)

Click on icon to see table/diagram/image

The following undesirable effects cover adverse reactions from post-marketing experience: The types of adverse reactions reported during post-marketing with mycophenolate mofetil are similar to those seen in the controlled renal, cardiac and hepatic transplant studies. Additional adverse reactions reported during post-marketing are described below with the frequencies reported within brackets if known.
Gastrointestinal: Gingival hyperplasia (≥1/100 to <1/10), colitis including cytomegalovirus colitis, (≥1/100 to <1/10), pancreatitis, (≥1/100 to <1/10) and intestinal villous atrophy.
Disorders related to immunosuppression: Serious life-threatening infections including meningitis, endocarditis, tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterial infection. Cases of BK virus associated nephropathy, as well as cases of JC virus associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), have been reported in patients treated with immunosuppressants, including mycophenolate mofetil.
Agranulocytosis (≥1/1000 to <1/100) and neutropenia have been reported; therefore, regular monitoring of patients taking mycophenolate mofetil is advised (see Precautions). There have been reports of aplastic anaemia and bone marrow depression in patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil, some of which have been fatal.
Blood and lymphatic system disorder: Cases of pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) have been reported in patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil (see Precautions).
Isolated cases of abnormal neutrophil morphology, including the acquired Pelger-Huet anomaly, have been observed in patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil. These changes are not associated with impaired neutrophil function. These changes may suggest a 'left shift' in the maturity of neutrophils in haematological investigations, which may be mistakenly interpreted as a sign of infection in immunosuppressed patients such as those that receive mycophenolate mofetil.
Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity reactions, including angioneurotic oedema and anaphylactic reaction, have been reported.
Congenital disorders: see further details in Use in Pregnancy & Lactation.
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: There have been isolated reports of interstitial lung disease and pulmonary fibrosis in patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil in combination with other immunosupressants, some of which have been fatal.
Drug Interactions
Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.
Aciclovir: Higher aciclovir plasma concentrations were observed when mycophenolate mofetil was administered with aciclovir in comparison to the administration of aciclovir alone. The changes in MPAG (the phenolic glucuronide of MPA) pharmacokinetics (MPAG increased by 8 %) were minimal and are not considered clinically significant. Because MPAG plasma concentrations are increased in the presence of renal impairment, as are aciclovir concentrations, the potential exists for mycophenolate mofetil and aciclovir, or its prodrugs, e.g. valaciclovir, to compete for tubular secretion and further increases in concentrations of both substances may occur.
Antacids with magnesium and aluminium hydroxides: Absorption of mycophenolate mofetil was decreased when administered with antacids.
Cholestyramine: Following single dose administration of 1.5 g of mycophenolate mofetil to normal healthy subjects pre-treated with 4 g TID of cholestyramine for 4 days, there was a 40 % reduction in the AUC of MPA (see Precautions and Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). Caution should be used during concomitant administration because of the potential to reduce efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil.
Medicinal products that interfere with enterohepatic circulation: Caution should be used with medicinal products that interfere with enterohepatic circulation because of their potential to reduce the efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil.
Ciclosporin A: Ciclosporin A (CsA) pharmacokinetics are unaffected by mycophenolate mofetil. In contrast, if concomitant ciclosporin treatment is stopped, an increase in MPA AUC of around 30% should be expected.
Ganciclovir: Based on the results of a single dose administration study of recommended doses of oral mycophenolate and IV ganciclovir and the known effects of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolate mofetil (see Dosage & Adminitration) and ganciclovir, it is anticipated that co-administration of these agents (which compete for mechanisms of renal tubular secretion) will result in increases in MPAG and ganciclovir concentration. No substantial alteration of MPA pharmacokinetics is anticipated and mycophenolate mofetil dose adjustment is not required. In patients with renal impairment in which mycophenolate mofetil and ganciclovir or its prodrugs, e.g. valganciclovir, are co-administered, the dose recommendations for ganciclovir should be observed and patients should be monitored carefully.
Oral contraceptives: The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral contraceptives were unaffected by coadministration of mycophenolate mofetil (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Rifampicin: In patients not also taking ciclosporin, concomitant administration of mycophenolate mofetil and rifampicin resulted in a decrease in MPA exposure (AUC0-12h) of 18% to 70%. It is recommended to monitor MPA exposure levels and to adjust mycophenolate mofetil doses accordingly to maintain clinical efficacy when rifampicin is administered concomitantly.
Sirolimus: In renal transplant patients, concomitant administration of mycophenolate mofetil and CsA resulted in reduced MPA exposures by 30-50% compared with patients receiving the combination of sirolimus and similar doses of mycophenolate mofetil (see Precautions).
Sevelamer: Decrease in MPA Cmax and AUC0-12 by 30% and 25%, respectively, were observed when mycophenolate mofetil was concomitantly administered with sevelamer without any clinical consequences (i.e. graft rejection). It is recommended, however, to administer mycophenolate mofetil at least one hour before or three hours after sevelamer intake to minimise the impact on the absorption of MPA. There is no data on mycophenolate mofetil with phosphate binders other than sevelamer. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole: No effect on the bioavailability of MPA was observed.
Norfloxacin and metronidazole: In healthy volunteers, no significant interaction was observed when mycophenolate mofetil was concomitantly administered with norfloxacin and metronidazole separately. However, norfloxacin and metronidazole combined reduced the MPA exposure by approximately 30 % following a single dose of mycophenolate mofetil.
Ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid: Reductions in pre-dose (trough) MPA concentrations of about 50% have been reported in renal transplant recipients in the days immediately following commencement of oral ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid. This effect tended to diminish with continued antibiotic use and to cease within a few days of their discontinuation. The change in predose level may not accurately represent changes in overall MPA exposure. Therefore, a change in the dose of mycophenolate mofetil should not normally be necessary in the absence of clinical evidence of graft dysfunction. However, close clinical monitoring should be performed during the combination and shortly after antibiotic treatment.
Tacrolimus: In hepatic transplant patients initiated on mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus, the AUC and Cmax of MPA, the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil, were not significantly affected by coadministration with tacrolimus. In, contrast, there was an increase of approximately 20 % in tacrolimus AUC when multiple doses of mycophenolate mofetil (1.5 g BID) were administered to patients taking tacrolimus. However, in renal transplant patients, tacrolimus concentration did not appear to be altered by mycophenolate mofetil (see Precautions).
Other interactions: Co-administration of probenecid with mycophenolate mofetil in monkeys raises plasma AUC of MPAG by 3-fold. Thus, other substances known to undergo renal tubular secretion may compete with MPAG, and thereby raise plasma concentrations of MPAG or the other substance undergoing tubular secretion.
Live vaccines: Live vaccines should not be given to patients with an impaired immune response. The antibody response to other vaccines may be diminished (see Precautions).
Caution For Usage
Special precautions for disposal: Because mycophenolate mofetil has demonstrated teratogenic effects in rats and rabbits, Mycophenolate mofetil tablets should not be crushed.
Incompatibilities: Not applicable.
Storage
Store below 30°C.
Shelf-Life: 2 years.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
L04AA06 - mycophenolic acid ; Belongs to the class of selective immunosuppressive agents. Used to induce immunosuppression.
Presentation/Packing
FC tab 500 mg (oblong, violet) x 50's.
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