Pemirex Mechanism of Action



Korea United Pharm


Full Prescribing Info
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Folic acid analogues. ATC code: L01BA04.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Pemetrexed is a multi-targeted anti-cancer antifolate agent that exerts its action by disrupting crucial folate-dependent metabolic processes essential for cell replication.
In vitro studies have shown that pemetrexed behaves as a multi-targeted antifolate by inhibiting thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT), which are key folate-dependent enzymes for the de novo biosynthesis of thymidine and purine nucleotides. Pemetrexed is transported into cells by both the reduced folate carrier and membrane folate binding protein transport systems. Once in the cell, pemetrexed is rapidly and efficiently converted to polyglutamate forms by the enzyme folylpolyglutamate synthetase. The polyglutamate forms are retained in cells and are even more potent inhibitors of TS and GARFT. Polyglutamation is a time- and concentration-dependent process that occurs in tumour cells and, to a lesser extent, in normal tissues. Polyglutamated metabolites have an increased intracellular half-life resulting in prolonged drug action in malignant cells.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: The pharmacokinetics of pemetrexed when pemetrexed was administered as a single agent in doses ranging from 0.2 to 838 mg/m2 infused over a 10-minute period have been evaluated in 426 cancer patients with a variety of solid tumors. Pemetrexed total systemic exposure (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) increased proportionally with increase of dose. The pharmacokinetics of pemetrexed did not change over multiple treatment cycles.
Distribution: Pemetrexed has a steady-state volume of distribution of 16.1 liters. In vitro studies indicated that pemetrexed is 81% bound to plasma proteins.
Elimination: Pemetrexed is primarily eliminated in the urine, with 70% to 90% of the dose recovered unchanged within the first 24 hours following administration. In vitro studies indicated that pemetrexed is a substrate of OAT3 (organic anion transporter 3), a transporter that is involved in the active secretion of pemetrexed.
The total systemic clearance of pemetrexed is 91.8 mL/min and the elimination half-life of pemetrexed is 3.5 hours in patients with normal renal function (creatinine clearance of 90 mL/min). As renal function decreases, the clearance of pemetrexed decreases and exposure (AUC) of pemetrexed increases.
Metabolism: Pemetrexed is not metabolized to an appreciable extent.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Administration of pemetrexed to pregnant mice resulted in decreased foetal viability, decreased foetal weight, incomplete ossification of some skeletal structures, and cleft palate.
Administration of pemetrexed to male mice resulted in reproductive toxicity characterised by reduced fertility rates and testicular atrophy. In a study conducted in beagle dog by intravenous bolus injection for 9 months, testicular findings (degeneration/necrosis of the seminiferous epithelium) have been observed. This suggests that pemetrexed may impair male fertility. Female fertility was not investigated.
Pemetrexed was not mutagenic in either the in vitro chromosome aberration test in Chinese hamster ovary cells, or the Ames test. Pemetrexed has been shown to be clastogenic in the in vivo micronucleus test in the mouse.
Studies to assess the carcinogenic potential of pemetrexed have not been conducted.
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