Tienam

Tienam

imipenem + cilastatin

Manufacturer:

MSD

Distributor:

Zuellig Pharma
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Imipenem, cilastatin sodium.
Description
TIENAM I.V. for intravenous infusion is available as a vial of 500 mg imipenem (anhydrous equivalent) and 500 mg cilastatin equivalent.
Action
TIENAM* (imipenem and cilastatin sodium, MSD) is a broad spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic supplied as two different formulations, one for intravenous infusion only, one for intramuscular injection only. TIENAM consists of two components: imipenem, the first of a new class of beta-lactam antibiotics, the thienamycins; and cilastatin sodium, a specific enzyme inhibitor that blocks the metabolism of imipenem in the kidney, and substantially increases the concentration of intact imipenem in the urinary tract. Imipenem and cilastatin sodium are present in TIENAM in a 1:1 ratio by weight.
The thienamycin class of antibiotics, to which imipenem belongs, is characterized by a spectrum of potent bactericidal activity.
Microbiology: TIENAM is a potent inhibitor of bacterial cell wall synthesis and is bactericidal against a broad spectrum of pathogens: gram-positive and gram-negative, aerobic and anaerobic.
TIENAM shares with the newer cephalosporins and penicillins a broad spectrum of activity against gram-negative species, but is unique in retaining the high potency against gram-positive species, previously associated only with earlier narrow-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics. The spectrum of activity of TIENAM includes Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacteroides fragilis, a diverse group of problem pathogens commonly resistant to other antibiotics.
TIENAM is resistant to degradation by bacterial beta-lactamases, which makes it active against a high percentage of organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia spp., and Enterobacter spp. which are inherently resistant to most beta-lactam antibiotics.
The antibacterial spectrum of TIENAM is broad including a number of significant pathogens. Organisms against which TIENAM is usually active in vitro include: Gram-Negative Aerobes: Achromobacter spp., Acinetobacter spp. (formerly Mima-Herellea), Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes spp., Bordetella bronchicanis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella pertussis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia pseudomallei (formerly Pseudomonas pseudomallei), Burkholderia stutzeri (formerly Pseudomonas stutzeri), Campylobacter spp., Capnocytophaga spp., Citrobacter spp., Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter koseri (formerly Citrobacter diversus), Eikenella corrodens, Enterobacter spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Gardnerella vaginalis, Haemophilus ducreyi, Haemophilus influenzae (including beta-lactamase-producing strains), Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Hafnia alvei, Klebsiella spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella ozaenae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella spp., Morganella morganii (formerly Proteus morganii), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including penicillinase-producing strains), Neisseria meningitidis, Pasteurella spp., Pasteurella multocida, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Proteus spp., Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia spp., Providencia alcalifaciens, Providencia rettgeri (formerly Proteus rettgeri), Providencia stuartii, Pseudomonas spp.**, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Salmonella spp., Salmonella typhi, Serratia spp., Serratia proteamaculans (formerly Serratia liquefaciens), Serratia marcescens, Shigella spp., Yersinia spp. (formerly Pasteurella), Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.
**Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (formerly Xanthomonas maltophilia, formerly Pseudomonas maltophilia) and some strains of Burkholderia cepacia (formerly Pseudomonas cepacia) are generally not susceptible to TIENAM.
Gram-Positive Aerobes: Bacillus spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Listeria monocytogenes, Nocardia spp., Pediococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase-producing strains), Staphylococcus epidermidis (including penicillinase-producing strains), Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus Group C, Streptococcus Group G, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Viridans group streptococci (including alpha and gamma hemolytic strains), Enterococcus faecium and methicillin-resistant staphylococci are not susceptible to TIENAM.
Gram-Negative Anaerobes: Bacteroides spp., Bacteroides distasonis, Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides ovatus, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bilophila wadsworthia, Fusobacterium spp., Fusobacterium necrophorum, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas asaccharolytica (formerly Bacteroides asaccharolyticus), Prevotella bivia (formerly Bacteroides bivius), Prevotella disiens (formerly Bacteroides disiens), Prevotella intermedia, (formerly Bacteroides intermedius), Prevotella melaninogenica (formerly Bacteroides melaninogenicus), Veillonella spp.
Gram-Positive Anaerobes: Actinomyces spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium spp., Clostridium perfringens, Eubacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Mobiluncus spp., Microaerophilic streptococcus, Peptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Propionibacterium spp. (including P. acnes).
Other: Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium smegmatis.
In vitro tests show imipenem to act synergistically with aminoglycoside antibiotics against some isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Indications/Uses
Treatment: The activity of TIENAM against an unusually broad spectrum of pathogens makes it particularly useful in the treatment of polymicrobic and mixed aerobic/anaerobic infections, as well as initial therapy prior to the identification of the causative organisms. TIENAM is indicated for the treatment of the following infections due to susceptible organisms: Intra-abdominal infections; Lower respiratory tract infections; Gynecological infections; Septicemia; Genitourinary tract infections; Bone and joint infections; Skin and soft tissue infections; Infective Endocarditis.
TIENAM is indicated for the treatment of mixed infections caused by susceptible strains of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The majority of these mixed infections are associated with contamination by fecal flora or flora originating from the vagina, skin and mouth. In these mixed infections, Bacteroides fragilis is the most commonly encountered anaerobic pathogen and is usually resistant to aminoglycosides, cephalosporins and penicillins. However, Bacteroides fragilis is usually susceptible to TIENAM.
TIENAM has demonstrated efficacy against many infections caused by aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria resistant to the cephalosporins, including cefazolin, cefoperazone, cephalothin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, moxalactam, cefamandole, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone. Similarly, many infections caused by organisms resistant to aminoglycosides (gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin) and/or penicillins (ampicillin, carbenicillin, penicillin-G, ticarcillin, piperacillin, azlocillin, mezlocillin) responded to treatment with TIENAM. However, many strain of methicillin-resistant staphylococci are resistant to imipenem.
TIENAM is not indicated for the treatment of meningitis.
PROPHYLAXIS: TIENAM is also indicated for the prevention of certain post-operative infections in patients undergoing contaminated or potentially contaminated surgical procedures or where the occurrence of post-operative infection could be especially serious.
Dosage/Direction for Use
TIENAM is available in intravenous infusion.
The dosage recommendations for TIENAM represent the quantity of imipenem to be administered. An equivalent amount of cilastatin is also present.
The total daily dosage and route of administration of TIENAM should be based on the type or severity of infection and given in equally divided doses based on consideration of degree of susceptibility of the pathogen(s), renal function and body weight.
INTRAVENOUS INFUSION: TREATMENT: ADULT DOSAGE SCHEDULE FOR PATIENTS WITH NORMAL RENAL FUNCTION: Doses cited in Table 1 are based on a patient with normal renal function (creatinine clearance of >70 mL/min/1.73 m2) and a body weight of ≥ 70 kg. A reduction in dose must be made for a patient with a creatinine clearance ≤ 70 mL/min/1.73 m2 (see Table 2) and/or a body weight <70 kg. The reduction for body weight is especially important for patients with much lower body weights and/or moderate/severe renal insufficiency.
Most infections respond to a daily dose of 1-2 g administered in 3-4 divided doses. For the treatment of moderate infection, a 1 g b.i.d. dosage regimen may also be used. In infections due to less susceptible organisms, the daily dosage of TIENAM I.V. may be increased to a maximum of 4 g/day or 50 mg/kg/day, whichever is lower.
Each dose of ≤ 500 mg of TIENAM I.V. should be given by intravenous infusion over 20 to 30 minutes. Each dose >500 mg should be infused over 40 to 60 minutes. In patients who develop nausea during the infusion, the rate of infusion may be slowed. (See Table 1.)

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Due to high antimicrobial activity of TIENAM, it is recommended that the maximum total daily dosage not exceed 50 mg/kg/day or 4 g/day, whichever is lower. However, cystic fibrosis patients with normal renal function have been treated with TIENAM at doses up to 90 mg/kg/day in divided doses, not exceeding 4 g/day.
TREATMENT: ADULT DOSAGE SCHEDULE FOR PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED RENAL FUNCTION: To determine the reduced dose for adults with impaired renal function: The total daily dose is chosen from Table 1 based on infection characteristics.
From Table 2 the appropriate reduced dosage regimen is selected based on the daily dose from Table 1 and the patients creatinine clearance category. (For infusion times see TREATMENT: ADULT DOSAGE SCHEDULE FOR PATIENTS WITH NORMAL RENAL FUNCTION as previously mentioned.) (See Table 2.)

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When the 500 mg dose is used in patients with creatinine clearances of 6-20 mL/min/1.73 m2 there may be an increased risk of seizures.
Patients with creatinine clearances of ≤ 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 should not receive TIENAM I.V. unless hemodialysis is instituted within 48 hours.
Hemodialysis: When treating patients with creatinine clearances of ≤ 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 who are undergoing hemodialysis, use the dosage recommendations for patients with creatinine clearances of 6-20 mL/min/1.73 m2 (see TREATMENT: ADULT DOSAGE SCHEDULE FOR PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED RENAL FUNCTION as previously mentioned).
Both imipenem and cilastatin are cleared from the circulation during hemodialysis. The patient should receive TIENAM I.V. after hemodialysis and at 12 hour intervals timed from the end of that hemodialysis session. Dialysis patients, especially those with background CNS disease, should be carefully monitored; for patients on hemodialysis, TIENAM I.V. is recommended only when the benefit outweighs the potential risk of seizures (see PRECAUTIONS).
Currently there are inadequate data to recommend use of TIENAM I.V. for patients on peritoneal dialysis.
Renal status of elderly patients may not be accurately portrayed by measurement of BUN or creatinine alone. Determination of creatinine clearance is suggested to provide guidance for dosing in such patients.
PROPHYLAXIS: ADULT DOSAGE SCHEDULE: For prophylaxis against post-surgical infections in adults, 1000 mg TIENAM I.V. should be given intravenously on induction of anesthesia and 1000 mg three hours later. For high-risk (e.g. colorectal) surgery, two additional 500 mg doses can be given at eight and sixteen hours after induction.
There are insufficient data on which to base a dosage recommendation for prophylaxis in patients with a creatinine clearance of ≤ 70 mL/min/1.73 m2.
TREATMENT: PEDIATRIC DOSAGE SCHEDULE (3 months or older): For children and infants the following dosage schedule is recommended: CHILDREN ≥ 40 kg body weight should receive adult doses.
CHILDREN AND INFANTS <40 kg body weight should receive 15 mg/kg at six hour intervals. The total daily dose should not exceed 2 gm.
Clinical data are insufficient to recommend dosing for children under 3 months of age, or pediatric patients with impaired renal function (serum creatinine >2 mg/dL).
TIENAM is not recommended for the therapy of meningitis. If meningitis is suspected, an appropriate antibiotic should be used.
TIENAM may be used in children with sepsis as long as they are not suspected of having meningitis.
RECONSTITUTION, INTRAVENOUS SOLUTION: TIENAM IV for intravenous infusion is supplied as a sterile powder in vials containing 250 mg imipenem equivalent and 250 mg cilastatin equivalent or 500 mg imipenem equivalent and 500 mg cilastatin equivalent.
TIENAM I.V. is buffered with sodium bicarbonate to provide solutions in the pH range of 6.5 to 8.5. There is no significant change in pH when solutions are prepared and used as directed. TIENAM I.V. 250 contains 18.8 mg of sodium (0.8 mEq) and TIENAM I.V. 500 contains 37.5 mg of sodium (1.6 mEq).
Sterile powder TIENAM I.V. should be reconstituted as shown in Table 3. It should be shaken until a clear solution is obtained. Variations of color, from colorless to yellow, do not affect the potency of the product. (See Table 3.)

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PREPARATION OF SOLUTION FOR 20 ML VIALS: Contents of vials must be suspended and transferred to 100 mL of an appropriate infusion solution.
A suggested procedure is to add approximately 10 mL from the appropriate infusion solution (see list of diluents in Table 4) to the vial. Shake well and transfer the resulting suspension to the infusion solution container.
CAUTION: THE SUSPENSION IS NOT FOR DIRECT INFUSION.
Repeat with an additional 10 mL of infusion solution to ensure complete transfer of vial contents to the infusion solution. The resulting mixture should be agitated until clear.
Overdosage
No specific information is available on the treatment of overdosage with TIENAM. Imipenem-cilastatin sodium is hemodialyzable. However, usefulness of this procedure in the overdosage setting is unknown.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to any component of this product.
Special Precautions
General: There is some clinical and laboratory evidence of partial cross-allergenicity between TIENAM and the other beta-lactam antibiotics, penicillins and cephalosporins. Severe reactions (including anaphylaxis) have been reported with most beta-lactam antibiotics. Before therapy with TIENAM, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics. If an allergic reaction to TIENAM occurs, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate measures undertaken.
Case reports in the literature have shown that co-administration of carbapenems, including imipenem, to patients receiving valproic acid or divalproex sodium results in a reduction in valproic acid concentrations. The valproic acid concentrations may drop below the therapeutic range as a result of this interaction, therefore increasing the risk of breakthrough seizures. Increasing the dose of valproic acid or divalproex sodium may not be sufficient to overcome this interaction. The concomitant use of imipenem and valproic acid/divalproex sodium is generally not recommended. Anti-bacterials other than carbapenems should be considered to treat infections in patients whose seizures are well controlled on valproic acid or divalproex sodium. If administration of TIENAM is necessary, supplemental anti-convulsant therapy should be considered (see INTERACTIONS.)
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with virtually all antibiotics and can range from mild to life-threatening in severity. Antibiotics should, therefore, be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis. It is important to consider a diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis in patients who develop diarrhea in association with antibiotic use. While studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is a primary cause of antibiotic-associated colitis, other causes should also be considered.
Central Nervous System: As with other beta-lactam antibiotics, CNS side effects such as myoclonic activity, confusional states, or seizures have been reported, especially when recommended dosages based on renal function and body weight were exceeded. These experiences have been reported most commonly in patients with CNS disorders (e.g., brain lesions or history of seizures) and/or compromised renal function in whom accumulation of the administered entities could occur. Hence, close adherence to recommended dosage schedules is urged, especially in these patients (see DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION). Anticonvulsant therapy should be continued in patients with a known seizure disorder.
If focal tremors, myoclonus or seizures occur, patients should be evaluated neurologically and placed on anticonvulsant therapy if not already instituted. If CNS symptoms continue, the dosage of TIENAM should be decreased or discontinued.
Patients with creatinine clearances of ≤ 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 should not receive TIENAM unless hemodialysis is instituted within 48 hours. For patients on hemodialysis, TIENAM is recommended only when the benefit outweighs the potential risk of seizures.
Use in Pregnancy: There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. TIENAM should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Use in Lactation: Imipenem has been detected in human milk. If the use of TIENAM is deemed essential, the patient should stop nursing.
Use in Children: Clinical data are insufficient to recommend the use of TIENAM for children under 3 months of age, or pediatric patients with impaired renal function (serum creatinine >2 mg/dL). (See also Treatment: Pediatric Dosage Schedule under Dosage & Administration.)
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Use in Pregnancy: There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. TIENAM should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Nursing Mothers: Imipenem has been detected in human milk. If the use of TIENAM is deemed essential, the patient should stop nursing.
Side Effects
TIENAM is generally well tolerated. In controlled clinical studies, TIENAM was found to be tolerated as well as cefazolin, cephalothin, and cefotaxime. Side effects rarely require cessation of therapy and are generally mild and transient; serious side effects are rare. The most common adverse reactions have been local reactions.
The following side effects have been reported during clinical studies and in post-marketing experience.
Local Reactions: Erythema, local pain and induration, thrombophlebitis.
Allergic Reactions/Skin: Rash, pruritus, urticaria, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, angioedema, toxic epidermal necrolysis (rarely), exfoliative dermatitis (rarely), candidiasis, fever including drug fever, anaphylactic reactions.
Gastrointestinal Reactions: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, staining of teeth and/or tongue. In common with virtually all other broad spectrum antibiotics, pseudomembranous colitis has been reported.
Blood: Eosinophilia, leukopenia, neutropenia, including agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytosis, and decreased hemoglobin, pancytopenia and prolonged prothrombin time have been reported. A positive direct Coombs' test may develop in some individuals.
Liver Function: Increases in serum transaminases, bilirubin and/or serum alkaline phosphatase; hepatic failure (rarely), hepatitis (rarely) and fulminant hepatitis (very rarely).
Renal Function: Oliguria/anuria, polyuria, acute renal failure (rarely). The role of TIENAM in changes in renal function is difficult to assess, since factors predisposing to pre-renal azotemia or to impaired renal function usually have been present.
Elevations in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen have been observed. Urine discoloration. This is harmless and should not be confused with hematuria.
Nervous System/Psychiatric: Paresthesia, encephalopathy, agitation, and dyskinesia.
As with other beta-lactam antibiotics, CNS side effects such as myoclonic activity, psychic disturbances, including hallucinations, confusional states, or seizures have been reported.
Special Senses: Hearing loss, taste perversion.
Granulocytopenic Patients: Drug-related nausea and/or vomiting appear to occur more frequently in granulocytopenic patients than in non-granulocytopenic patients treated with TIENAM I.V.
Drug Interactions
Generalized seizures have been reported in patients who received ganciclovir and TIENAM I.V. These drugs should not be used concomitantly unless the potential benefits outweigh the risks.
Also see Stability, Tienam I.V. under Storage.
Case reports in the literature have shown that co-administration of carbapenems, including imipenem, to patients receiving valproic acid or divalproex sodium results in a reduction of valproic acid concentrations. The valproic acid concentrations may drop below the therapeutic range as a result of this interaction, therefore increasing the risk of breakthrough seizures. Although the mechanism of this interaction is unknown, data from in vitro and animal studies suggest that carbapenems may inhibit the hydrolysis of valproic acid's glucuronide metabolite (VPA-g) back to valproic acid, thus decreasing the serum concentrations of valproic acid. (See Precautions.)
Storage
STABILITY, TIENAM I.V.: Store the dry powder at room temperature (E.P. = 15-25°C).
Table 4 shows the stability period for TIENAM I.V. when reconstituted with selected infusion solutions, and stored at room temperature or under refrigeration.
CAUTION: TIENAM I.V. is chemically incompatible with lactate and should not be reconstituted in diluents containing lactate. TIENAM I.V. can be administered, however, into an I.V. system through which a lactate solution is being infused.
TIENAM I.V. should not be mixed with or physically added to other antibiotics. (See Table 4.)

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MIMS Class
ATC Classification
J01DH51 - imipenem and cilastatin ; Belongs to the class of carbapenems. Used in the systemic treatment of infections.
Presentation/Packing
Infusion (vial) 1's.
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