Betaine


Thông tin thuốc gốc
Chỉ định và Liều dùng
Oral
Adjunct in homocystinuria treatment
Adult: In patients with deficiencies or defects in cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cobalamin cofactor metabolism (CBL), and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR): As betaine anhydrous oral powder: Usual dose: 3 g bid; may gradually increase until plasma homocysteine level is undetectable or present only in small amounts. Max: 20 g daily. Dosage recommendations may vary among countries and individual products (refer to specific product guidelines).
Child: <3 years As betaine anhydrous oral powder: Initially, 50 mg/kg bid, may increase at weekly intervals in increments of 50 mg/kg daily until plasma homocysteine level is undetectable or present only in small amounts; ≥3 years Same as adult dose. Dosage recommendations may vary among countries and individual products (refer to specific product guidelines).
Hướng dẫn pha thuốc
Mix the powder in 120-180 mL of water, juice, milk or formula until completely dissolved, or mix with food.
Thận trọng
Patient with CBS deficiency. Various preparations of betaine are available which are not to be used interchangeably; refer to specific product guidelines for detailed information. Children. Pregnancy and lactation.
Tác dụng không mong muốn
Significant: Severe cerebral oedema associated with hypermethioninaemia (particularly in patients with CBS deficiency).
Gastrointestinal disorders: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, glossitis, stomach discomfort, dental disorders.
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: Anorexia.
Psychiatric disorders: Irritability, agitation, depression, personality disorder, sleep disorder.
Renal and urinary disorders: Urinary incontinence.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Hives, abnormal skin odour, hair loss.
Chỉ số theo dõi
Monitor total plasma homocysteine level (to determine patient response); plasma methionine at baseline and periodically thereafter in patients with CBS deficiency (maintain <1,000 micromol/L).
Tác dụng
Description: Betaine, an endogenous metabolite of choline, acts as a methyl group donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, thereby decreasing elevated homocysteine plasma concentrations in patients with homocystinuria.
Synonym: trimethylglycine.
Pharmacokinetics:
Absorption: Rapidly absorbed. Time to peak plasma concentration: 0.9 ± 0.3 hours.
Distribution: Rapidly distributed. Volume of distribution: 1.3 L/kg.
Excretion: Elimination half-life: 14 hours.
Đặc tính

Chemical Structure Image
Betaine

Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 247, Betaine. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Betaine. Accessed Apr. 27, 2022.

Bảo quản
Store between 15-30°C. Protect from moisture.
Phân loại MIMS
Các thuốc khác ảnh hưởng đến chuyển hóa
Phân loại ATC
A16AA06 - betaine ; Belongs to the class of amino acids and derivatives products. Used in treatment of alimentary tract and metabolism problems.
Tài liệu tham khảo
Anon. Betaine. AHFS Clinical Drug Information [online]. Bethesda, MD. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. https://www.ahfscdi.com. Accessed 18/04/2022.

Anon. Betaine. Lexicomp Online. Hudson, Ohio. Wolters Kluwer Clinical Drug Information, Inc. https://online.lexi.com. Accessed 23/03/2022.

Betaine Anhydrous for Oral Solution (Oakrum Pharma, LLC). DailyMed. Source: U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed. Accessed 23/03/2022.

Buckingham R (ed). Betaine. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference [online]. London. Pharmaceutical Press. https://www.medicinescomplete.com. Accessed 23/03/2022.

Cystadane 1 g Oral Powder (Recordati Rare Diseases). MHRA. https://products.mhra.gov.uk. Accessed 23/03/2022.

Joint Formulary Committee. Betaine. British National Formulary [online]. London. BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press. https://www.medicinescomplete.com. Accessed 23/03/2022.

Pharmacy Retailing (NZ) Ltd t/a Healthcare Logistics. Cystadane 1 g Powder for Oral Administration data sheet June 2019. Medsafe. http://www.medsafe.govt.nz. Accessed 23/03/2022.

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