Chlorphenamine


Thông tin thuốc gốc
Chỉ định và Liều dùng
Oral
Allergic conditions
Adult: As conventional tab: 4 mg 4-6 hourly. Max: 24 mg daily. As extended-release tab: 12 mg 12 hourly. Max: 24 mg daily.
Child: 1-<2 years 1 mg bid; 2-5 years 1 mg 4-6 hourly. Max: 6 mg daily; 6-<12 years 2 mg 4-6 hourly. Max: 12 mg daily; ≥12 years Same as adult dose. Dosage recommendations may vary among countries or individual products. Refer to specific product guidelines.
Elderly: Dose reduction may be needed. Max: 12 mg daily.

Parenteral
Allergic conditions
Adult: 10-20 mg via IM, SC or slow IV inj over 1 minute. Max: 40 mg daily.
Child: 1 month to <1 year 0.25 mg/kg; 1-5 years 0.2 mg/kg or 2.5-5 mg; 6-12 years 0.2 mg/kg or 5-10 mg; >12 years 0.2 mg/kg or 10-20 mg.
Cách dùng
May be taken with or without food.
Tương kỵ
Incompatible with Ca chloride, kanamycin sulfate, norepinephrine acid tartrate, pentobarbital Na and meglumine adipiodone.
Chống chỉ định
Narrow-angle glaucoma, symptomatic prostate hypertrophy, acute asthma attacks, stenosing peptic ulcer, bladder neck or pyloroduodenal obstruction. Concomitant or within 14 days of MAOI use.
Thận trọng
Patient with CV disease (e.g. ischaemic heart disease, hypertension), increased intraocular pressure, thyroid dysfunction, asthma or other chronic breathing disorders (e.g. bronchitis), epilepsy, prostatic hyperplasia, genitourinary obstruction. Hepatic or renal impairment. Children and elderly. Pregnancy and lactation.
Tác dụng không mong muốn
Significant: Sedation; excitation (in young children).
Eye disorders: Blurred vision.
Gastrointestinal disorders: Dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, epigastric pain.
General disorders and administration site conditions: Fatigue, lassitude.
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: Anorexia, increased appetite.
Nervous system disorders: Somnolence, disturbance in attention, abnormal coordination, dizziness, headache.
Thông tin tư vấn bệnh nhân
This drug may cause drowsiness, dizziness, blurred vision and psychomotor impairment, if affected, do not drive or operate machinery.
Quá liều
Symptoms: Sedation, paradoxical excitation of the CNS, toxic psychosis, apnoea, convulsions, anticholinergic effects, dystonic reactions, CV collapse (e.g. arrhythmias). Management: Symptomatic and supportive treatment. Gastric lavage or induced emesis using syrup of ipecacuanha may be considered. Activated charcoal can be given if overdosage is by the oral route, provided there are no contraindications for use and the overdose is recent (within 1 hour of ingestion). CNS convulsions may be treated with IV diazepam. Hypotension and arrhythmias should be treated vigorously. For severe cases, haemoperfusion may be used.
Tương tác
Enhanced sedative effect with other CNS depressants (e.g. barbiturates, hypnotics, opioid analgesics, sedatives, antipsychotics. Inhibits phenytoin metabolism which may lead to phenytoin toxicity.
Potentially Fatal: Increased anticholinergic effects with MAOIs.
Tương tác với thức ăn
Enhanced CNS depression with alcohol.
Ảnh hưởng đến kết quả xét nghiệm
May suppress the wheal and flare reactions to skin test antigens.
Tác dụng
Description: Chlorphenamine, an alkylamine derivative, is a sedating antihistamine that competitively and reversibly inhibits histamine H1- receptor in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract and blood vessels. This prevents the release of histamine, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, and also prevents the migration of inflammatory mediators.
Synonym: Chlorpheniramine.
Onset: Within 30 minutes.
Duration: 4-6 hours.
Pharmacokinetics:
Absorption: Readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Bioavailability: 25-50%. Time to peak plasma concentration: 2.5-6 hours.
Distribution: Widely distributed in the body, including the CNS. Enters breast milk. Volume of distribution: 6-12 L/kg. Plasma protein binding: Approx 70%.
Metabolism: Extensively metabolised in the liver by CYP enzymes, including CYP2D6 to active and inactive metabolites, including desmethyl- and didesmethylchlorphenamine; undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism.
Excretion: Mainly via urine (approx 22%, as unchanged drug); faeces (trace amounts). Elimination half-life: 2-43 hours.
Đặc tính

Chemical Structure Image
Chlorphenamine

Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Chlorpheniramine, CID=2725, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Chlorpheniramine (accessed on Jan. 21, 2020)

Bảo quản
Store between 20-25°C. Protect from light.
Phân loại MIMS
Thuốc kháng histamin & kháng dị ứng
Phân loại ATC
R06AB04 - chlorphenamine ; Belongs to the class of substituted alkylamines used as systemic antihistamines.
Tài liệu tham khảo
Anon. Chlorphenamine [Chlorpheniramine]. Lexicomp Online. Hudson, Ohio. Wolters Kluwer Clinical Drug Information, Inc. https://online.lexi.com. Accessed 15/02/2022.

Anon. Chlorpheniramine. AHFS Clinical Drug Information [online]. Bethesda, MD. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. https://www.ahfscdi.com. Accessed 15/02/2022.

Buckingham R (ed). Chlorphenamine Maleate. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference [online]. London. Pharmaceutical Press. https://www.medicinescomplete.com. Accessed 15/02/2022.

Chlorphen-12 Tablet, Film Coated, Extended Release (KVK-Tech, Inc). DailyMed. Source: U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed. Accessed 15/02/2022.

Chlorphenamine 10 mg/mL Solution for Injection (Macarthys Laboratories Ltd). MHRA. https://products.mhra.gov.uk. Accessed 15/02/2022.

Chlorphenamine 2 mg/5 mL Oral Solution (Dalkeith Laboratories Limited). MHRA. https://products.mhra.gov.uk. Accessed 15/02/2022.

Chlorphenamine 4 mg Tablets (Special Concept Development UK Limited T/A RxFarma). MHRA. https://products.mhra.gov.uk. Accessed 15/02/2022.

Chlorpheniramine Maleate Tablet (Reliable 1 Laboratories LLC). DailyMed. Source: U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed. Accessed 15/02/2022.

Joint Formulary Committee. Chlorphenamine Maleate. British National Formulary [online]. London. BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press. https://www.medicinescomplete.com. Accessed 15/02/2022.

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