Pharmacodynamic Interactions: Diuretics: Empagliflozin may add to the diuretic effect of thiazide and loop diuretics and may increase the risk of dehydration and hypotension.
Insulin and insulin secretagogues, such as sulphonylureas, may increase the risk of hypoglycaemia. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or an insulin secretagogue may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia when used in combination with empagliflozin (see Dosage & Administration and Adverse Reactions).
Pharmacokinetic Interactions: In vitro assessment of drug interactions: Empagliflozin does not inhibit, inactivate, or induce CYP450 isoforms. In vitro data suggest that the primary route of metabolism of empagliflozin in humans is glucuronidation by the uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases UGT2B7, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, and UGT1A9. Empagliflozin does not inhibit UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, or UGT2B7. At therapeutic doses, the potential for empagliflozin to reversibly inhibit or inactivate the major CYP450 and UGT isoforms is remote. Drug-drug interactions involving the major CYP450 and UGT isoforms with empagliflozin and concomitantly administered substrates of these enzymes are therefore considered unlikely.
Empagliflozin is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), but it does not inhibit these efflux transporters at therapeutic doses. Based on in vitro studies, empagliflozin is considered unlikely to cause interactions with drugs that are P-gp substrates. Empagliflozin is a substrate of the human uptake transporters OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3, but not OAT1 and OCT2. Empagliflozin does not inhibit any of these human uptake transporters at clinically relevant plasma concentrations and, as such, drug-drug interactions with substrates of these uptake transporters are considered unlikely.
In vivo assessment of drug interactions: No clinically meaningful pharmacokinetic interactions were observed when empagliflozin was coadministered with other commonly used medicinal products. Based on results of pharmacokinetic studies no dose adjustment of JARDIANCE is recommended when co-administered with commonly prescribed medicinal products.
Empagliflozin pharmacokinetics were similar with and without co-administration of metformin, glimepiride, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, linagliptin, warfarin, verapamil, ramipril, simvastatin, in healthy volunteers and with or without co-administration of torasemide and hydrochlorothiazide in patients with T2DM. Increases in overall exposure (AUC) of empagliflozin were seen following co-administration with gemfibrozil (59%), rifampicin (35%), or probenecid (53%). These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
Empagliflozin had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of metformin, glimepiride, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, linagliptin, warfarin, digoxin, ramipril, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, torasemide and oral contraceptives when co-administered in healthy volunteers.
Interference with 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) Assay: Monitoring glycemic control with 1,5-AG assay is not recommended as measurements of 1,5-AG are unreliable in assessing glycemic control in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.