Tranexamic acid


Thông tin thuốc gốc
Chỉ định và Liều dùng
Intravenous
Short-term management of haemorrhage
Adult: Local: 0.5-1 g bid or tid. General: 1 g (or 15 mg/kg) 6-8 hourly. Doses are administered by slow inj at a rate of 1 mL/min.

Oral
Menorrhagia
Adult: 1 g tid during menstruation as necessary for up to 5 days, may be increased for heavy bleeding. Max: 4 g daily.

Oral
Hereditary angioedema
Adult: 1-1.5 g bid or tid given intermittently or continuously, depending on patient condition.

Oral
Short-term management of haemorrhage
Adult: Localised: 1-1.5 g (or 15-25 mg/kg) bid or tid.

Oral
Patients with haemophilia undergoing dental extraction
Adult: 1.5 g (or 25 mg/kg) 8 hourly.
Renal Impairment
Oral:
Mild to moderate: Serum creatinine level (µmol/L): 120-249: 15 mg/kg bid. 250-500: 15 mg/kg daily. Severe: Contraindicated.
Intravenous:
Mild to moderate: Serum creatinine level (µmol/L): 120-249: 10 mg/kg 12 hourly. 250-500: 10 mg kg 24 hourly. >500: 5 mg/kg 24 hourly. Severe: Contraindicated.
Cách dùng
May be taken with or without food.
Tương kỵ
Intravenous:
Incompatible with benzylpenicillin.
Chống chỉ định
Hypersensitivity. Active thromboembolic disease (e.g. pulmonary embolism, DVT), history of venous or arterial thrombosis (including retinal vein or artery occlusion), disseminated intravascular coagulation, fibrinolytic conditions after consumption coagulopathy, history of convulsions. Concomitant use with hormonal contraceptives. Severe renal impairment.
Thận trọng
Patients with enormous haematuria from upper urinary tract, history of thromboembolic diseases. Women with subarachnoid haemorrhage or irregular menstrual cycle. Mild to moderate renal impairment. Pregnancy and lactation.
Phản ứng phụ
Significant: Visual and ocular disturbance (e.g. impaired colour vision), retinal vein or artery occlusion, ligneous conjunctivitis, thromboembolic events, convulsions.
Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Anaemia.
Gastrointestinal disorders: Diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain.
General disorders and administration site conditions: Fatigue.
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: Musculoskeletal pain, muscle cramps.
Nervous system disorders: Headache, migraine.
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Nasal and sinus symptoms.
Potentially Fatal: Severe hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis.
IV/Parenteral/PO: B
Thông tin tư vấn bệnh nhân
This drug may cause dizziness, if affected, do not drive or operate machinery.
Monitoring Parameters
Perform eye examinations at baseline then regularly during treatment.
Quá liều
Symptoms: Convulsions, dizziness, headache, hypotension, nausea, vomiting. Management: Supportive treatment.
Tương tác
Antagonistic effects with thrombolytics (e.g. alteplase, reteplase). Increased risk of thrombosis with factor IX complex concentrates or anti-inhibitor coagulant concentrates. May enhance the procoagulant effect of all-trans retinoic acid (oral tretinoin) in women with acute promyelocytic leukaemia.
Potentially Fatal: Concomitant use with hormonal contraceptives may increase the risk of venous thromboembolism or arterial thrombosis (e.g. MI, stroke).
Tác dụng
Description: Tranexamic acid inhibits fibrinolysis by blocking the binding of plasminogen and plasmin to fibrin, thus preventing dissolution of the haemostatic plug.
Pharmacokinetics:
Absorption: Absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Bioavailability: Approx 45% (oral). Time to peak plasma concentration: 2.5 hours after oral administration (range: 1-5 hours).
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the body. It crosses the placenta and enters breast milk. Volume of distribution: 9-12 L. Plasma protein-binding: Approx 3%, mainly to plasminogen.
Excretion: Via urine (>95%, as unchanged drug). Elimination half-life: Approx 2-11 hours.
Đặc tính

Chemical Structure Image
Tranexamic acid

Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Tranexamic acid, CID=5526, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Tranexamic-acid (accessed on Jan. 23, 2020)

Bảo quản
Store at 25°C.
Phân loại MIMS
Phân loại ATC
B02AA02 - tranexamic acid ; Belongs to the class of amino acid antifibrinolytics. Used in the treatment of hemorrhage.
References
Anon. Tranexamic Acid. Lexicomp Online. Hudson, Ohio. Wolters Kluwer Clinical Drug Information, Inc. https://online.lexi.com. Accessed 24/01/2019.

Buckingham R (ed). Tranexamic Acid. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference [online]. London. Pharmaceutical Press. https://www.medicinescomplete.com. Accessed 24/01/2019.

Tranexamic Acid Injection (Micro Labs Limited). DailyMed. Source: U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/. Accessed 24/01/2019.

Tranexamic Acid Tablet (Apotex Inc.). DailyMed. Source: U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/. Accessed 24/01/2019.

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