Theophylline


Generic Medicine Info
Administration
May be taken with or without food. May be taken w/ meals to reduce GI discomfort. Some individual prep must be taken w/ meals or on an empty stomach. Refer to monographs for individual formulations.
Contraindications
Porphyria, recent MI, acute tachyarrhythmia. Concomitant use with ephedrine (in children <6 years or with bodyweight <22 kg).
Special Precautions
Patient with cardiac diseases (e.g. CHF, cardiac arrhythmias except bradyarrhythmias, hypertension); cor pulmonale, acute pulmonary oedema, hypo- or hyperthyroidism, acute febrile illness or sustained fever, cirrhosis, acute hepatitis, cholestasis, sepsis with multiorgan failure, shock, cystic fibrosis, seizure disorders, active peptic ulcer, chronic alcoholism, pre-existing partial urinary tract obstruction (e.g. prostatic enlargement particularly in elderly males), viral infections, severe asthma. Smokers (including cessation of smoking). Not indicated as 1st drug of choice in the treatment of asthma in children. Concomitant electroconvulsive therapy. Hepatic and renal impairment. Children and elderly. Pregnancy and lactation. Patient counselling This drug may impair your ability to react, if affected, do not drive or operate machinery. Do not switch between different brands or dosage forms unless instructed by your doctor. Monitoring Parameters Monitor serum theophylline concentrations after treatment initiation and prior to dose increases (especially in patients with conditions that may alter theophylline clearance); heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial or capillary blood gases (as necessary), fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations, acid-base balance (during prolonged IV treatment); cardiac and CNS changes prior to and periodically during therapy. Assess treatment effectiveness; signs of worsening asthma symptoms, and CNS effects (e.g. irritability, insomnia).
Adverse Reactions
Significant: Exacerbated cardiac arrhythmias, urinary retention (particularly in elderly males), exacerbated seizures, status epilepticus, exacerbated peptic ulcer. Cardiac disorders: Atrial or sinus tachycardia, palpitations. Gastrointestinal disorders: Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, gastric irritation, GERD, nausea, vomiting. Immune system disorders: Hypersensitivity (e.g. anaphylactic reaction, urticaria, bronchospasm). Investigations: Increased serum calcium, increased blood creatinine. Metabolism and nutrition disorders: Hyperuricaemia, hypokalaemia, hyperglycaemia, electrolyte imbalance. Nervous system disorders: Dizziness, headache, tremor. Psychiatric disorders: Agitation, anxiety, insomnia, sleep disorder, restlessness. Renal and urinary disorders: Diuresis. Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Rash, pruritus. Vascular disorders: Hypotension.
Potentially Fatal: Theophylline toxicity (with reduced clearance).
Drug Interactions
May increase the frequency of nausea, nervousness, and insomnia with ephedrine. Increased clearance with aminoglutethimide, carbamazepine, isoprenaline, phenytoin, rifampicin, ritonavir, sulfinpyrazone, and barbiturates (e.g. phenobarbital). Decreased clearance with aciclovir, allopurinol, carbimazole, cimetidine, clarithromycin, erythromycin), ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, disulfiram, fluconazole, fluvoxamine, interferon alfa, isoniazid, methotrexate, mexiletine, pentoxifylline, propafenone, propranolol, tiabendazole, verapamil, and oral contraceptives. May increase plasma levels with influenza vaccines. May inhibit the effects of adenosine receptor agonists (e.g. adenosine, regadenoson). May antagonise the sedative effect of benzodiazepines (e.g. diazepam, flurazepam). May increase the risk of arrhythmias with halothane. May reduce the convulsive threshold with ketamine. May increase renal clearance of lithium. May potentiate the hypokalaemic effect of β2-agonists, corticosteroids, and diuretics.
ATC Classification
R03DA04 - theophylline ; Belongs to the class of xanthines. Used in the systemic treatment of obstructive airway diseases.
Disclaimer: This information is independently developed by CIMS based on theophylline from various references and is provided for your reference only. Therapeutic uses, prescribing information and product availability may vary between countries. Please refer to CIMS Product Monographs for specific and locally approved prescribing information. Although great effort has been made to ensure content accuracy, CIMS shall not be held responsible or liable for any claims or damages arising from the use or misuse of the information contained herein, its contents or omissions, or otherwise. Copyright © 2021 CIMS. All rights reserved. Powered by CIMSAsia.com
Register or sign in to continue
Asia's one-stop resource for medical news, clinical reference and education
Sign up for free
Already a member? Sign in