Oral Chronic kidney disease associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Adult: To reduce the risk of sustained eGFR decline, ESRD, CV death, non-fatal MI, and hospitalisation for heart failure in cases with albuminuria, in addition to standard of care: Recommended target dose: 20 mg once daily. eGFR 25-59 mL/min/1.73 m2: Initially, 10 mg once daily; may increase after 4 weeks to 20 mg once daily based on eGFR and serum K thresholds. eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2: Initially, 20 mg once daily. Do not initiate treatment if eGFR is <25 mL/min/1.73 m2 or serum K is >5 mmol/L. Dose adjustment or interruption may be required according to eGFR and serum K thresholds (refer to detailed product guidelines).
Severe (Child-Pugh class C): Avoid use.
May be taken with or without food. Swallow whole. For patients w/ swallowing difficulties, tab may be crushed and mixed w/ water or soft foods (e.g. applesauce). Take immediately.
Adrenal insufficiency. Concomitant use with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.
Patient with risk factors for hyperkalaemia (e.g. low eGFR, higher baseline K levels, previous episodes of hyperkalaemia). Moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B); avoid use in severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C). Pregnancy and lactation.
Significant: Hyperkalaemia. Investigations: Decreased GFR. Metabolism and nutrition disorders: Hyponatraemia. Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Pruritus. Vascular disorders: Hypotension.
Measure serum K (at baseline, 4 weeks after initiation of therapy or dosage adjustments, and periodically during therapy), eGFR (at baseline and periodically during therapy), and LFT.
Moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. erythromycin, verapamil) or weak CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. amiodarone, fluvoxamine) may increase finerenone exposure. Increased risk of hyperkalaemia with drugs that increase serum K including K supplements, K-sparing diuretics (e.g. amiloride, triamterene), other mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (e.g. eplerenone, esaxerenone, spironolactone, canrenone), trimethoprim or trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole. Strong CYP3A4 inducers (e.g. carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, rifampicin) or moderate CYP3A4 inducers (e.g. efavirenz) may decrease the plasma concentration of finerenone. Potentially Fatal: Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g. ketoconazole, itraconazole, cobicistat, clarithromycin, telithromycin, ritonavir, nelfinavir, nefazodone) significantly increase finerenone exposure, which may increase the risk of adverse reactions.
Concomitant intake of grapefruit or grapefruit juice significantly increases the plasma concentration of finerenone; avoid concomitant intake. May reduce plasma concentration with St. John's wort.
Description: Finerenone is a nonsteroidal, selective antagonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), which is activated by cortisol and aldosterone and regulates gene transcription. It blocks MR-mediated Na reabsorption and decreases MR overactivation in both epithelial (e.g. kidney) and nonepithelial (e.g. blood vessels, heart) tissues, thereby reducing inflammation and fibrosis. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Almost completely absorbed. Bioavailability: 44%. Time to peak plasma concentration: 0.5-1.25 hours. Distribution: Plasma protein binding: 92%, mainly to albumin. Metabolism: Metabolised in the liver mainly by CYP3A4 (90%) and to a lesser extent by CYP2C8 (10%) into 4 major inactive metabolites. Excretion: Mainly via urine (approx 80%; <1% as unchanged drug); faeces (approx 20%; <0.2% as unchanged drug). Elimination half-life: Approx 2-3 hours.
C03DA05 - finerenone ; Belongs to the class of aldosterone antagonists. Used as potassium-sparing diuretics.
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