Forxiga

Forxiga

Manufacturer:

AstraZeneca

Distributor:

Zuellig Pharma
Full Prescribing Info
Contents
Dapagliflozin.
Description
Each tablet contains dapagliflozin propanediol monohydrate equivalent to 5 mg or 10 mg of dapagliflozin.
Excipient with known effect: Each tablet contains 25 mg or 50 mg of lactose anhydrous.
Excipients/Inactive Ingredients: Tablet core: Microcrystalline cellulose (E460i), Anhydrous lactose, Crospovidone (E1202), Silicon dioxide (E551), Magnesium stearate (E470b).
Film-coating: Polyvinyl alcohol (E1203), Titanium dioxide (E171), Macrogol 3350, Talc (E553b), Iron oxide yellow (E172).
Action
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Drugs used in diabetes, Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. ATC code: A10BK01.
Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: Dapagliflozin is a highly potent (Ki: 0.55 nM), selective and reversible inhibitor of SGLT2.
The SGLT2 is selectively expressed in the kidney with no expression detected in more than 70 other tissues including liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, breast, bladder and brain. SGLT2 is the predominant transporter responsible for reabsorption of glucose from the glomerular filtrate back into the circulation. Despite the presence of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, reabsorption of filtered glucose continues. Dapagliflozin improves both fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose levels by reducing renal glucose reabsorption leading to urinary glucose excretion. This glucose excretion (glucuretic effect) is observed after the first dose, is continuous over the 24-hour dosing interval and is sustained for the duration of treatment. The amount of glucose removed by the kidney through this mechanism is dependent upon the blood glucose concentration and GFR. Dapagliflozin does not impair normal endogenous glucose production in response to hypoglycaemia. Dapagliflozin acts independently of insulin secretion and insulin action. Improvement in homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function (HOMA beta-cell) has been observed in clinical studies with Forxiga.
Urinary glucose excretion (glucuresis) induced by dapagliflozin is associated with caloric loss and reduction in weight. Inhibition of glucose and sodium co-transport by dapagliflozin is also associated with mild diuresis and transient natriuresis.
Dapagliflozin does not inhibit other glucose transporters important for glucose transport into peripheral tissues and is > 1,400 times more selective for SGLT2 versus SGLT1, the major transporter in the gut responsible for glucose absorption.
Pharmacodynamic effects: Increases in the amount of glucose excreted in the urine were observed in healthy subjects and in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus following the administration of dapagliflozin. Approximately 70 g of glucose was excreted in the urine per day (corresponding to 280 kcal/day) at a dapagliflozin dose of 10 mg/day in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus for 12 weeks. Evidence of sustained glucose excretion was seen in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus given dapagliflozin 10 mg/day for up to 2 years.
This urinary glucose excretion with dapagliflozin also results in osmotic diuresis and increases in urinary volume in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Urinary volume increases in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg were sustained at 12 weeks and amounted to approximately 375 mL/day. The increase in urinary volume was associated with a small and transient increase in urinary sodium excretion that was not associated with changes in serum sodium concentrations.
Urinary uric acid excretion was also increased transiently (for 3-7 days) and accompanied by a sustained reduction in serum uric acid concentration. At 24 weeks, reductions in serum uric acid concentrations ranged from -48.3 to -18.3 micromoles/L (-0.87 to -0.33 mg/dL).
Clinical efficacy and safety: Type 2 diabetes mellitus: Both improvement of glycemic control and reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are an integral part of the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Fourteen double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trials were conducted with 7,056 subjects with type 2 diabetes to evaluate the glycaemic efficacy and safety of Forxiga; 4,737 subjects in these studies were treated with dapagliflozin. Twelve studies had a treatment period of 24 weeks duration, 8 with long-term extensions ranging from 24 to 80 weeks (up to a total study duration of 104 weeks), and one study had a 28-week treatment period, and one study was 52 weeks in duration with long-term extensions of 52 and 104 weeks (total study duration of 208 weeks). Mean duration of diabetes ranged from 1.4 to 16.9 years. Fifty percent (50%) had mild renal impairment and 11% had moderate renal impairment. Fifty-one percent (51%) of the subjects were men, 84% were White, 8% were Asian, 4% were Black and 4% were of other racial groups. Eighty-one percent (81%) of the subjects had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27. Furthermore, two 12-week, placebo-controlled studies were conducted in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes and hypertension.
A cardiovascular outcomes study (DECLARE) was conducted with dapagliflozin 10 mg compared with placebo in 17,160 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without established cardiovascular disease to evaluate the effect on cardiovascular and renal events.
Glycaemic control: Monotherapy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 24-week duration (with an additional extension period) was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of monotherapy with Forxiga in subjects with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Once-daily treatment with dapagliflozin resulted in statistically significant (p < 0.0001) reductions in HbA1c compared to placebo (Table 1).
In the extension period, HbA1c reductions were sustained through Week 102 (-0.61%, and -0.17% adjusted mean change from baseline for dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively). (See Table 1.)

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Add-on combination therapy: In a 52-week, active-controlled non-inferiority study (with 52- and 104-week extension periods), Forxiga was evaluated as add-on therapy to metformin compared with a sulphonylurea (glipizide) as add-on therapy to metformin in subjects with inadequate glycaemic control (HbA1c > 6.5% and ≤ 10%). The results showed a similar mean reduction in HbA1c from baseline to Week 52, compared to glipizide, thus demonstrating non-inferiority (Table 2). At Week 104, adjusted mean change from baseline in HbA1c was -0.32% for dapagliflozin and -0.14% for glipizide. At Week 208, adjusted mean change from baseline in HbA1c was -0.10% for dapagliflozin and 0.20% for glipizide. At 52, 104 and 208 weeks, a significantly lower proportion of subjects in the group treated with dapagliflozin (3.5%, 4.3% and 5.0%, respectively) experienced at least one event of hypoglycaemia compared to the group treated with glipizide (40.8%, 47.0% and 50.0%, respectively). The proportion of subjects remaining in the study at Week 104 and Week 208 was 56.2% and 39.7% for the group treated with dapagliflozin and 50.0% and 34.6% for the group treated with glipizide. (See Table 2.)

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Dapagliflozin as an add-on with either metformin, glimepiride, metformin and a sulphonylurea, sitagliptin (with or without metformin) or insulin resulted in statistically significant reductions in HbA1c at 24 weeks compared with subjects receiving placebo (p < 0.0001; Tables 3, 4 and 5).
The reductions in HbA1c observed at Week 24 were sustained in add-on combination studies (glimepiride and insulin) with 48-week data (glimepiride) and up to 104-week data (insulin). At Week 48 when added to sitagliptin (with or without metformin), the adjusted mean change from baseline for dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo was -0.30% and 0.38%, respectively. For the add-on to metformin study, HbA1c reductions were sustained through Week 102 (-0.78% and 0.02% adjusted mean change from baseline for 10 mg and placebo, respectively). At Week 104 for insulin (with or without additional oral glucose-lowering medicinal products), the HbA1c reductions were -0.71% and -0.06% adjusted mean change from baseline for dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively. At Weeks 48 and 104, the insulin dose remained stable compared to baseline in subjects treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg at an average dose of 76 IU/day. In the placebo group there was a mean increase of 10.5 IU/day and 18.3 IU/day from baseline (mean average dose of 84 and 92 IU/day) at Weeks 48 and 104, respectively. The proportion of subjects remaining in the study at Week 104 was 72.4% for the group treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg and 54.8% for the placebo group. (See Tables 3, 4 and 5.)

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In combination with metformin in drug-naïve patients: A total of 1,236 drug-naïve patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 7.5% and ≤ 12%) participated in two active-controlled studies of 24-weeks duration to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin (5 mg or 10 mg) in combination with metformin in drug-naïve patients versus therapy with the monocomponents.
Treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg in combination with metformin (up to 2000 mg per day) provided significant improvements in HbA1c compared to the individual components (Table 6), and led to greater reductions in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (compared to the individual components) and body weight (compared to metformin). (See Table 6.)

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Combination therapy with prolonged-release exenatide: In a 28-week, double-blind, active comparator-controlled study, the combination of dapagliflozin and prolonged-release exenatide (a GLP-1 receptor agonist) was compared to dapagliflozin alone and prolonged-release exenatide alone in subjects with inadequate glycaemic control on metformin alone (HbA1c ≥ 8% and ≤ 12%). All treatment groups had a reduction in HbA1c compared to baseline. The combination treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg and prolonged-release exenatide group showed superior reductions in HbA1c from baseline compared to dapagliflozin alone and prolonged-release exenatide alone (Table 7). (See Table 7.)

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Fasting plasma glucose: Treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg as a monotherapy or as an add-on to either metformin, glimepiride, metformin and a sulphonylurea, sitagliptin (with or without metformin) or insulin resulted in statistically significant reductions in FPG (-1.90 to -1.20 mmol/L [-34.2 to -21.7 mg/dL]) compared to placebo (-0.33 to 0.21 mmol/L [-6.0 to 3.8 mg/dL]). This effect was observed at Week 1 of treatment and maintained in studies extended through Week 104.
Combination therapy of dapagliflozin 10 mg and prolonged-release exenatide resulted in significantly greater reductions in FPG at Week 28: -3.66 mmol/l (-65.8 mg/dl), compared to -2.73 mmol/l (-49.2 mg/dl) for dapagliflozin alone (p < 0.001) and -2.54 mmol/l (-45.8 mg/dl) for exenatide alone (p < 0.001).
In a dedicated study in diabetic patients with an eGFR ≥ 45 to < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, treatment with dapagliflozin demonstrated reductions in FPG at Week 24: -1.19 mmol/L (-21.46 mg/dL) compared to -0.27 mmol/L (-4.87 mg/dL) for placebo (p=0.001).
Post-prandial glucose: Treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg as an add-on to glimepiride resulted in statistically significant reductions in 2-hour post-prandial glucose at 24 weeks that were maintained up to Week 48.
Treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg as an add-on to sitagliptin (with or without metformin) resulted in reductions in 2-hour post-prandial glucose at 24 weeks that were maintained up to Week 48.
Combination therapy of dapagliflozin 10 mg and prolonged-release exenatide resulted in significantly greater reductions in 2-hour post-prandial glucose at Week 28 compared to either medicinal product alone.
Body weight: Dapagliflozin 10 mg as an add-on to metformin, glimepiride, metformin and a sulphonylurea, sitagliptin (with or without metformin) or insulin resulted in statistically significant body weight reduction at 24 weeks (p < 0.0001, Tables 3 and 4). These effects were sustained in longer-term trials. At 48 weeks, the difference for dapagliflozin as add-on to sitagliptin (with or without metformin) compared with placebo was -2.22 kg. At 102 weeks, the difference for dapagliflozin as add-on to metformin compared with placebo, or as add-on to insulin compared with placebo was -2.14 and -2.88 kg, respectively.
As an add-on therapy to metformin in an active-controlled non-inferiority study, dapagliflozin resulted in a statistically significant body weight reduction compared with glipizide of -4.65 kg at 52 weeks (p < 0.0001, Table 2) that was sustained at 104 and 208 weeks (-5.06 kg and -4.38 kg, respectively).
The combination of dapagliflozin 10 mg and prolonged-release exenatide demonstrated significantly greater weight reductions compared to either medicinal product alone (Table 7).
A 24-week study in 182 diabetic subjects using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to evaluate body composition demonstrated reductions with dapagliflozin 10 mg plus metformin compared with placebo plus metformin, respectively, in body weight and body fat mass as measured by DXA rather than lean tissue or fluid loss. Treatment with Forxiga plus metformin showed a numerical decrease in visceral adipose tissue compared with placebo plus metformin treatment in a magnetic resonance imaging substudy.
Blood pressure: In a pre-specified pooled analysis of 13 placebo-controlled studies, treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg resulted in a systolic blood pressure change from baseline of -3.7 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure of -1.8 mmHg versus -0.5 mmHg systolic and -0.5 mmHg diastolic blood pressure for placebo group at Week 24. Similar reductions were observed up to 104 weeks.
Combination therapy of dapagliflozin 10 mg and prolonged-release exenatide resulted in a significantly greater reduction in systolic blood pressure at Week 28 (-4.3 mmHg) compared to dapagliflozin alone (-1.8 mmHg, p < 0.05) and prolonged-release exenatide alone (-1.2 mmHg, p < 0.01).
In two 12-week, placebo-controlled studies a total of 1,062 patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes and hypertension (despite pre-existing stable treatment with an ACE-I or ARB in one study and an ACE-I or ARB plus one additional antihypertensive treatment in another study) were treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo. At Week 12 for both studies, dapagliflozin 10 mg plus usual antidiabetic treatment provided improvement in HbA1c and decreased the placebo-corrected systolic blood pressure on average by 3.1 and 4.3 mmHg, respectively.
In a dedicated study in diabetic patients with an eGFR ≥ 45 to < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, treatment with dapagliflozin demonstrated reductions in seated systolic blood pressure at Week 24: 4.8 mmHg compared to 1.7 mmHg for placebo (p < 0.05).
Glycaemic control in patients with moderate renal impairment CKD 3A (eGFR ≥ 45 to < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2): The efficacy of dapagliflozin was assessed in a dedicated study in diabetic patients with an eGFR ≥ 45 to < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 who had inadequate glycaemic control on usual care. Treatment with dapagliflozin resulted in reductions in HbA1c and body weight compared with placebo (Table 8). (See Table 8.)

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Patients with baseline HbA1c ≥ 9%: In a pre-specified analysis of subjects with baseline HbA1c ≥ 9.0%, treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg resulted in statistically significant reductions in HbA1c at Week 24 as a monotherapy (adjusted mean change from baseline: -2.04% and 0.19% for dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively) and as an add-on to metformin (adjusted mean change from baseline: -1.32% and -0.53% for dapagliflozin and placebo, respectively).
Cardiovascular and renal outcomes: Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events (DECLARE) was an international, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study conducted to determine the effect of dapagliflozin compared with placebo on cardiovascular outcomes when added to current background therapy. All patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus and either at least two additional cardiovascular risk factors (age ≥ 55 years in men or ≥ 60 years in women and one or more of dyslipidaemia, hypertension or current tobacco use) or established cardiovascular disease.
Of 17,160 randomised patients, 6,974 (40.6%) had established cardiovascular disease and 10,186 (59.4%) did not have established cardiovascular disease. 8,582 patients were randomised to dapagliflozin 10 mg and 8,578 to placebo, and were followed for a median of 4.2 years.
The mean age of the study population was 63.9 years, 37.4% were female. In total, 22.4% had diabetes for ≤ 5 years, mean duration of diabetes was 11.9 years. Mean HbA1c was 8.3% and mean BMI was 32.1 kg/m2.
At baseline, 10.0% of patients had a history of heart failure. Mean eGFR was 85.2 mL/min/1.73 m2, 7.4% of patients had eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 30.3% of patients had micro- or macroalbuminuria (urine albumin to creatinine ratio [UACR] ≥ 30 to ≤ 300 mg/g or > 300 mg/g, respectively).
Most patients (98%) used one or more diabetic medications at baseline, including metformin (82%), insulin (41%) and sulfonylurea (43%).
The primary endpoints were time to first event of the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke (MACE) and time to first event of the composite of hospitalisation for heart failure or cardiovascular death. The secondary endpoints were a renal composite endpoint and all-cause mortality.
Major adverse cardiovascular events: Dapagliflozin 10 mg demonstrated non-inferiority versus placebo for the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke (one-sided p < 0.001).
Heart failure or cardiovascular death: Dapagliflozin 10 mg demonstrated superiority versus placebo in preventing the composite of hospitalisation for heart failure or cardiovascular death (Figure 1). The difference in treatment effect was driven by hospitalisation for heart failure, with no difference in cardiovascular death (Figure 2).
The treatment benefit of dapagliflozin over placebo was observed both in patients with and without established cardiovascular disease, with and without heart failure at baseline, and was consistent across key subgroups, including age, gender, renal function (eGFR) and region. (See Figure 1.)

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Results on primary and secondary endpoints are displayed in Figure 2. Superiority of dapagliflozin over placebo was not demonstrated for MACE (p=0.172). The renal composite endpoint and all-cause mortality were therefore not tested as part of the confirmatory testing procedure. (See Figure 2.)

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Nephropathy: Dapagliflozin reduced the incidence of events of the composite of confirmed sustained eGFR decrease, end-stage renal disease, renal or cardiovascular death. The difference between groups was driven by reductions in events of the renal components; sustained eGFR decrease, end-stage renal disease and renal death (Figure 2).
The hazard ratio for time to nephropathy (sustained eGFR decrease, end-stage renal disease and renal death) was 0.53 (95% CI 0.43, 0.66) for dapagliflozin versus placebo.
In addition, dapagliflozin reduced the new onset of sustained albuminuria (hazard ratio 0.79 [95% CI 0.72, 0.87]) and led to greater regression of macroalbuminuria (hazard ratio 1.82 [95% CI 1.51, 2.20]) compared with placebo.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Dapagliflozin was rapidly and well absorbed after oral administration. Maximum dapagliflozin plasma concentrations (Cmax) were usually attained within 2 hours after administration in the fasted state. Geometric mean steady-state dapagliflozin Cmax and AUCτ values following once daily 10 mg doses of dapagliflozin were 158 ng/mL and 628 ng h/mL, respectively. The absolute oral bioavailability of dapagliflozin following the administration of a 10 mg dose is 78%. Administration with a high-fat meal decreased dapagliflozin Cmax by up to 50% and prolonged Tmax by approximately 1 hour, but did not alter AUC as compared with the fasted state. These changes are not considered to be clinically meaningful. Hence, Forxiga can be administered with or without food.
Distribution: Dapagliflozin is approximately 91% protein bound. Protein binding was not altered in various disease states (e.g. renal or hepatic impairment). The mean steady-state volume of distribution of dapagliflozin was 118 litres.
Biotransformation: Dapagliflozin is extensively metabolised, primarily to yield dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide, which is an inactive metabolite. Dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide or other metabolites do not contribute to the glucose-lowering effects. The formation of dapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide is mediated by UGT1A9, an enzyme present in the liver and kidney, and CYP-mediated metabolism was a minor clearance pathway in humans.
Elimination: The mean plasma terminal half-life (t1/2) for dapagliflozin was 12.9 hours following a single oral dose of dapagliflozin 10 mg to healthy subjects. The mean total systemic clearance of dapagliflozin administered intravenously was 207 mL/min. Dapagliflozin and related metabolites are primarily eliminated via urinary excretion with less than 2% as unchanged dapagliflozin. After administration of a 50 mg [14C]-dapagliflozin dose, 96% was recovered, 75% in urine and 21% in faeces. In faeces, approximately 15% of the dose was excreted as parent drug.
Linearity: Dapagliflozin exposure increased proportional to the increment in dapagliflozin dose over the range of 0.1 to 500 mg and its pharmacokinetics did not change with time upon repeated daily dosing for up to 24 weeks.
Special populations: Renal impairment: At steady-state (20 mg once-daily dapagliflozin for 7 days), subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and mild, moderate or severe renal impairment (as determined by iohexol plasma clearance) had mean systemic exposures of dapagliflozin of 32%, 60% and 87% higher, respectively, than those of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal renal function. The steady-state 24-hour urinary glucose excretion was highly dependent on renal function and 85, 52, 18 and 11 g of glucose/day was excreted by subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal renal function or mild, moderate or severe renal impairment, respectively. The impact of hemodialysis on dapagliflozin exposure is not known.
Hepatic impairment: In subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh classes A and B), mean Cmax and AUC of dapagliflozin were up to 12% and 36% higher, respectively, compared to healthy matched control subjects. These differences were not considered to be clinically meaningful. In subjects with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) mean Cmax and AUC of dapagliflozin were 40% and 67% higher than matched healthy controls, respectively.
Elderly (≥ 65 years): There is no clinically meaningful increase in exposure based on age alone in subjects up to 70 years old. However, an increased exposure due to age-related decrease in renal function can be expected. There are insufficient data to draw conclusions regarding exposure in patients > 70 years old.
Paediatric population: Pharmacokinetics in the paediatric population have not been studied.
Gender: The mean dapagliflozin AUCss in females was estimated to be about 22% higher than in males.
Race: There were no clinically relevant differences in systemic exposures between White, Black or Asian races.
Body weight: Dapagliflozin exposure was found to decrease with increased weight. Consequently, low-weight patients may have somewhat increased exposure and patients with high weight somewhat decreased exposure. However, the differences in exposure were not considered clinically meaningful.
Toxicology: Preclinical safety data: Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of safety pharmacology, repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenic potential and fertility. Dapagliflozin did not induce tumours in either mice or rats at any of the doses evaluated in two-year carcinogenicity studies.
Reproductive and developmental toxicity: Direct administration of dapagliflozin to weanling juvenile rats and indirect exposure during late pregnancy (time periods corresponding to the second and third trimesters of pregnancy with respect to human renal maturation) and lactation are each associated with increased incidence and/or severity of renal pelvic and tubular dilatations in progeny.
In a juvenile toxicity study, when dapagliflozin was dosed directly to young rats from postnatal day 21 until postnatal day 90, renal pelvic and tubular dilatations were reported at all dose levels; pup exposures at the lowest dose tested were ≥ 15 times the maximum recommended human dose. These findings were associated with dose-related increases in kidney weight and macroscopic kidney enlargement observed at all doses. The renal pelvic and tubular dilatations observed in juvenile animals did not fully reverse within the approximate 1-month recovery period.
In a separate study of pre- and postnatal development, maternal rats were dosed from gestation day 6 through postnatal day 21, and pups were indirectly exposed in utero and throughout lactation (a satellite study was conducted to assess dapagliflozin exposures in milk and pups). Increased incidence or severity of renal pelvic dilatation was observed in adult offspring of treated dams, although only at the highest dose tested (associated maternal and pup dapagliflozin exposures were 1,415 times and 137 times, respectively, the human values at the maximum recommended human dose). Additional developmental toxicity was limited to dose-related reductions in pup body weights, and observed only at doses ≥ 15 mg/kg/day (associated with pup exposures that are ≥ 29 times the human values at the maximum recommended human dose). Maternal toxicity was evident only at the highest dose tested, and limited to transient reductions in body weight and food consumption at dose. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for developmental toxicity, the lowest dose tested, is associated with a maternal systemic exposure multiple that is approximately 19 times the human value at the maximum recommended human dose.
In additional studies of embryo-foetal development in rats and rabbits, dapagliflozin was administered for intervals coinciding with the major periods of organogenesis in each species. Neither maternal nor developmental toxicities were observed in rabbits at any dose tested; the highest dose tested is associated with a systemic exposure multiple of approximately 1,191 times the maximum recommended human dose. In rats, dapagliflozin was neither embryolethal nor teratogenic at exposures up to 1,441 times the maximum recommended human dose.
Indications/Uses
Forxiga is indicated in adults aged 18 years and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus as: Monotherapy: When diet and exercise alone do not provide adequate glycaemic control in patients for whom use of metformin is considered inappropriate due to intolerance.
Add-on combination therapy: In combination with other glucose-lowering medicinal products including insulin, when these, together with diet and exercise, do not provide adequate glycaemic control (see Precautions, Interactions and Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions for available data on different combinations).
Initial Combination: Forxiga is indicated for use as initial combination therapy with metformin, as an adjunct to diet and exercise, to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when diet and exercise have failed to provide adequate glycaemic control and there are poor prospects for response to metformin monotherapy (for example, high initial HbA1c levels).
To reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease (CVD) or multiple cardiovascular (CV) risk factors.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Posology: Monotherapy and add-on combination therapy: The recommended dose is 10 mg dapagliflozin once daily.
When dapagliflozin is used in combination with insulin or an insulin secretagogue, such as a sulphonylurea, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be considered to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia (see Interactions and Adverse Reactions).
Initial Combination Therapy: The recommended starting doses of Forxiga and metformin when used as initial combination therapy are 10 mg Forxiga plus 500 mg metformin once daily. Patients with inadequate glycemic control on this dose should further have their metformin dose increased according to approved local label guidelines.
Special populations: Renal impairment: Forxiga is not recommended for the treatment of diabetes in patients where eGFR is persistently below 45 ml/min/1.73 m2 as the glycaemic efficacy is dependent on renal function (see Precautions, Adverse Reactions and Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions). No dosage adjustment is required based on renal function.
Hepatic impairment: No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. In patients with severe hepatic impairment, a starting dose of 5 mg is recommended. If well tolerated, the dose may be increased to 10 mg (see Precautions and Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Elderly (≥ 65 years): In general, no dosage adjustment is recommended based on age. Renal function and risk of volume depletion should be taken into account (see Precautions and Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Paediatric population: The safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin in children aged 0 to < 18 years have not yet been established. No data are available.
Method of administration: Forxiga can be taken orally once daily at any time of day with or without food. Tablets are to be swallowed whole.
Overdosage
Dapagliflozin did not show any toxicity in healthy subjects at single oral doses up to 500 mg (50 times the maximum recommended human dose). These subjects had detectable glucose in the urine for a dose-related period of time (at least 5 days for the 500 mg dose), with no reports of dehydration, hypotension or electrolyte imbalance, and with no clinically meaningful effect on QTc interval. The incidence of hypoglycaemia was similar to placebo. In clinical studies where once-daily doses of up to 100 mg (10 times the maximum recommended human dose) were administered for 2 weeks in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetes subjects, the incidence of hypoglycaemia was slightly higher than placebo and was not dose-related. Rates of adverse events including dehydration or hypotension were similar to placebo, and there were no clinically meaningful dose-related changes in laboratory parameters, including serum electrolytes and biomarkers of renal function.
In the event of an overdose, appropriate supportive treatment should be initiated as dictated by the patient's clinical status. The removal of dapagliflozin by haemodialysis has not been studied.
Contraindications
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in Description.
Special Precautions
Use in patients at risk for volume depletion and/or hypotension: Due to its mechanism of action, dapagliflozin increases diuresis which may lead to the modest decrease in blood pressure observed in clinical studies (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions). It may be more pronounced in patients with very high blood glucose concentrations.
Caution should be exercised in patients for whom a dapagliflozin-induced drop in blood pressure could pose a risk, such as patients on anti-hypertensive therapy with a history of hypotension or elderly patients.
In case of intercurrent conditions that may lead to volume depletion (e.g. gastrointestinal illness), careful monitoring of volume status (e.g. physical examination, blood pressure measurements, laboratory tests including haematocrit and electrolytes) is recommended. Temporary interruption of treatment with dapagliflozin is recommended for patients who develop volume depletion until the depletion is corrected (see Adverse Reactions).
Diabetic ketoacidosis: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors should be used with caution in patients with increased risk of DKA. Patients who may be at higher risk of DKA include patients with a low beta-cell function reserve (e.g. type 2 diabetes patients with low C-peptide or latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) or patients with a history of pancreatitis), patients with conditions that lead to restricted food intake or severe dehydration, patients for whom insulin doses are reduced and patients with increased insulin requirements due to acute medical illness, surgery or alcohol abuse.
The risk of diabetic ketoacidosis must be considered in the event of non-specific symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, excessive thirst, difficulty breathing, confusion, unusual fatigue or sleepiness. Patients should be assessed for ketoacidosis immediately if these symptoms occur, regardless of blood glucose level.
Before initiating dapagliflozin, factors in the patient history that may predispose to ketoacidosis should be considered.
Treatment should be interrupted in patients who are hospitalised for major surgical procedures or acute serious medical illnesses. In both cases, treatment with dapagliflozin may be restarted once the patient's condition has stabilised.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus: Rare cases of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), including life-threatening and fatal cases, have been reported in patients treated with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including dapagliflozin. In a number of cases, the presentation of the condition was atypical with only moderately increased blood glucose values, below 14 mmol/L (250 mg/dL).
In patients where DKA is suspected or diagnosed, treatment with dapagliflozin should be discontinued immediately.
Restarting SGLT2 inhibitor treatment in patients experiencing a DKA while on SGLT2 inhibitor treatment is not recommended, unless another clear precipitating factor is identified and resolved.
Necrotising fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier's gangrene): Postmarketing cases of necrotising fasciitis of the perineum, (also known as Fournier's gangrene), have been reported in female and male patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors (see Adverse Reactions). This is a rare but serious and potentially life-threatening event that requires urgent surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment.
Patients should be advised to seek medical attention if they experience a combination of symptoms of pain, tenderness, erythema, or swelling in the genital or perineal area, with fever or malaise. Be aware that either uro-genital infection or perineal abscess may precede necrotizing fasciitis. If Fournier's gangrene is suspected, Forxiga should be discontinued and prompt treatment (including antibiotics and surgical debridement) should be instituted.
Urinary tract infections: Urinary glucose excretion may be associated with an increased risk of urinary tract infection; therefore, temporary interruption of dapagliflozin should be considered when treating pyelonephritis or urosepsis.
Cardiac failure: There is no experience in clinical studies with dapagliflozin in NYHA class IV.
Lower limb amputations: An increase in cases of lower limb amputation (primarily of the toe) has been observed in ongoing long-term, clinical studies with another SGLT2 inhibitor. It is unknown whether this constitutes a class effect. Like for all diabetic patients it is important to counsel patients on routine preventative foot care.
Urine laboratory assessments: Due to its mechanism of action, patients taking Forxiga will test positive for glucose in their urine.
Lactose: The tablets contain lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, total lactase deficiency, or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Forxiga has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Patients should be alerted to the risk of hypoglycaemia when dapagliflozin is used in combination with a sulphonylurea or insulin.
Renal impairment: Renal function should be evaluated prior to initiation of Forxiga and periodically thereafter. Forxiga is not recommended for the treatment of diabetes when eGFR is persistently below 45 ml/min/1.73 m2 as the glycaemic efficacy of dapagliflozin is dependent on renal function. Forxiga has not been studied in patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Hepatic impairment: There is limited experience in clinical trials in patients with hepatic impairment. Dapagliflozin exposure is increased in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see Dosage & Administration and Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Use in Elderly (≥ 65 years): Elderly patients may be at a greater risk for volume depletion and are more likely to be treated with diuretics.
Elderly patients are more likely to have impaired renal function, and/or to be treated with anti-hypertensive medicinal products that may cause changes in renal function such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARB). The same recommendations for renal function apply to elderly patients as to all patients (see Dosage & Administration, Precautions, Adverse Reactions and Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
Use In Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: There are no data from the use of dapagliflozin in pregnant women. Studies in rats have shown toxicity to the developing kidney in the time period corresponding to the second and third trimesters of human pregnancy (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions). Therefore, the use of dapagliflozin is not recommended during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.
When pregnancy is detected, treatment with dapagliflozin should be discontinued.
Breast-feeding: It is unknown whether dapagliflozin and/or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. Available pharmacodynamic/toxicological data in animals have shown excretion of dapagliflozin/metabolites in milk, as well as pharmacologically-mediated effects in nursing offspring (see Pharmacology: Toxicology: Preclinical safety data under Actions). A risk to the newborns/infants cannot be excluded. Dapagliflozin should not be used while breast-feeding.
Fertility: The effect of dapagliflozin on fertility in humans has not been studied. In male and female rats, dapagliflozin showed no effects on fertility at any dose tested.
Adverse Reactions
Summary of the safety profile: In the clinical studies in type 2 diabetes, more than 15,000 patients have been treated with dapagliflozin.
The primary assessment of safety and tolerability was conducted in a pre-specified pooled analysis of 13 short-term (up to 24 weeks) placebo-controlled studies with 2,360 subjects treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg and 2,295 were treated with placebo.
In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcomes study (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions), 8,574 patients received dapagliflozin 10 mg and 8,569 received placebo for a median exposure time of 48 months. In total, there were 30,623 patient-years of exposure to dapagliflozin.
The most frequently reported adverse reactions across the clinical studies were genital infections.
Tabulated list of adverse reactions: The following adverse reactions have been identified in the placebo-controlled clinical studies and postmarketing surveillance. None were found to be dose-related. Adverse reactions listed as follows are classified according to frequency and system organ class (SOC). Frequency categories are defined according to the following convention: very common (≥ 1/10), common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10), uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100), rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000), very rare (< 1/10,000), and not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). (See Table 9.)

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Description of selected adverse reactions: Vulvovaginitis, balanitis and related genital infections: In the 13-study safety pool, vulvovaginitis, balanitis and related genital infections were reported in 5.5% and 0.6% of subjects who received dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively. Most infections were mild to moderate, and subjects responded to an initial course of standard treatment and rarely resulted in discontinuation from dapagliflozin treatment. These infections were more frequent in females (8.4% and 1.2% for dapagliflozin and placebo, respectively), and subjects with a prior history were more likely to have a recurrent infection.
In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcomes study, the number of patients with serious adverse events of genital infections were few and balanced: 2 patients in each of the dapagliflozin and placebo groups.
Necrotising fascitis of the perineum (Fournier's gangrene): Cases of Fournier's gangrene have been reported postmarketing in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors including dapagliflozin (see Precautions).
In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcome study with 17,160 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and a median exposure time of 48 months, a total of 6 cases of Fournier's gangrene were reported, one in the dapagliflozin-treated group and 5 in the placebo group.
Hypoglycaemia: The frequency of hypoglycaemia depended on the type of background therapy used in each study.
For studies of dapagliflozin in monotherapy, initial combination with metformin, as add-on to metformin or as add-on to sitagliptin (with or without metformin), the frequency of minor episodes of hypoglycaemia was similar (< 5%) between treatment groups, including placebo up to 102 weeks of treatment. Across all studies, major events of hypoglycaemia were uncommon and comparable between the groups treated with dapagliflozin or placebo. Studies with add-on sulphonylurea and add-on insulin therapies had higher rates of hypoglycaemia (see Interactions).
In an add-on to glimepiride study, at Weeks 24 and 48, minor episodes of hypoglycaemia were reported more frequently in the group treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg plus glimepiride (6.0% and 7.9%, respectively) than in the placebo plus glimepiride group (2.1% and 2.1%, respectively).
In an add-on to insulin study, episodes of major hypoglycaemia were reported in 0.5% and 1.0% of subjects treated with dapagliflozin 10 mg plus insulin at Weeks 24 and 104, respectively, and in 0.5% of subjects treated with placebo plus insulin groups at Weeks 24 and 104. At Weeks 24 and 104, minor episodes of hypoglycaemia were reported, respectively, in 40.3% and 53.1% of subjects who received dapagliflozin 10 mg plus insulin and in 34.0% and 41.6% of the subjects who received placebo plus insulin.
In an add-on to metformin and a sulphonylurea study, up to 24 weeks, no episodes of major hypoglycaemia were reported. Minor episodes of hypoglycaemia were reported in 12.8% of subjects who received dapagliflozin 10 mg plus metformin and a sulphonylurea and in 3.7% of subjects who received placebo plus metformin and a sulphonylurea.
In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcomes study, no increased risk of major hypoglycaemia was observed with dapagliflozin therapy compared with placebo. Major events of hypoglycaemia were reported in 58 patients (0.7%) treated with dapagliflozin and 83 (1.0%) patients treated with placebo.
Volume depletion: In the 13-study safety pool, reactions suggestive of volume depletion (including, reports of dehydration, hypovolaemia or hypotension) were reported in 1.1% and 0.7% of subjects who received dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively; serious reactions occurred in < 0.2% of subjects balanced between dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo (see Precautions).
In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcomes study, the numbers of patients with events suggestive of volume depletion were balanced between treatment groups: 213 (2.5%) and 207 (2.4%) in the dapagliflozin and placebo groups, respectively. Serious adverse events were reported in 81 (0.9%) and 70 (0.8%) in the dapagliflozin and placebo group, respectively. Events were generally balanced between treatment groups across subgroups of age, diuretic use, blood pressure and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use. In patients with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline, there were 19 events of serious adverse events suggestive of volume depletion in the dapagliflozin group and 13 events in the placebo group.
Diabetic ketoacidosis: In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcomes study, with a median exposure time of 48 months, events of DKA were reported in 27 patients in the dapagliflozin 10 mg group and 12 patients in the placebo group. The events occurred evenly distributed over the study period. Of the 27 patients with DKA events in the dapagliflozin group, 22 had concomitant insulin treatment at the time of the event. Precipitating factors for DKA were as expected in a type 2 diabetes mellitus population (see Precautions).
Urinary tract infections: In the 13-study safety pool, urinary tract infections were more frequently reported for dapagliflozin 10 mg compared to placebo (4.7% versus 3.5%, respectively; see Precautions). Most infections were mild to moderate, and subjects responded to an initial course of standard treatment and rarely resulted in discontinuation from dapagliflozin treatment. These infections were more frequent in females, and subjects with a prior history were more likely to have a recurrent infection.
In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcomes study, serious events of urinary tract infections were reported less frequently for dapagliflozin 10 mg compared with placebo, 79 (0.9%) events versus 109 (1.3%) events, respectively.
Increased creatinine: Adverse drug reactions related to increased creatinine were grouped (e.g. decreased renal creatinine clearance, renal impairment, increased blood creatinine and decreased glomerular filtration rate). This grouping of reactions was reported in 3.2% and 1.8% of patients who received dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively. In patients with normal renal function or mild renal impairment (baseline eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) this grouping of reactions were reported in 1.3% and 0.8% of patients who received dapagliflozin 10 mg and placebo, respectively. These reactions were more common in patients with baseline eGFR ≥ 30 and < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (18.5% dapagliflozin 10 mg vs 9.3% placebo).
Further evaluation of patients who had renal-related adverse events showed that most had serum creatinine changes of ≤ 0.5 mg/dl from baseline. The increases in creatinine were generally transient during continuous treatment or reversible after discontinuation of treatment.
In the dapagliflozin cardiovascular outcomes study, including elderly patients and patients with renal impairment (eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2), eGFR decreased over time in both treatment groups. At 1 year, mean eGFR was slightly lower, and at 4 years, mean eGFR was slightly higher in the dapagliflozin group compared with the placebo group.
Drug Interactions
Pharmacodynamic interactions: Diuretics: Dapagliflozin may add to the diuretic effect of thiazide and loop diuretics and may increase the risk of dehydration and hypotension (see Precautions).
Insulin and insulin secretagogues: Insulin and insulin secretagogues, such as sulphonylureas, cause hypoglycaemia. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or an insulin secretagogue may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia when used in combination with dapagliflozin (see Dosage & Administration and Adverse Reactions).
Pharmacokinetic interactions: The metabolism of dapagliflozin is primarily via glucuronide conjugation mediated by UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1A9 (UGT1A9).
In in vitro studies, dapagliflozin neither inhibited cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, nor induced CYP1A2, CYP2B6 or CYP3A4. Therefore, dapagliflozin is not expected to alter the metabolic clearance of coadministered medicinal products that are metabolised by these enzymes.
Effect of other medicinal products on dapagliflozin: Interaction studies conducted in healthy subjects, using mainly a single dose design, suggest that the pharmacokinetics of dapagliflozin are not altered by metformin, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, glimepiride, voglibose, hydrochlorothiazide, bumetanide, valsartan, or simvastatin.
Following coadministration of dapagliflozin with rifampicin (an inducer of various active transporters and drug-metabolising enzymes) a 22% decrease in dapagliflozin systemic exposure (AUC) was observed, but with no clinically meaningful effect on 24-hour urinary glucose excretion. No dose adjustment is recommended. A clinically relevant effect with other inducers (e.g. carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital) is not expected.
Following coadministration of dapagliflozin with mefenamic acid (an inhibitor of UGT1A9), a 55% increase in dapagliflozin systemic exposure was seen, but with no clinically meaningful effect on 24-hour urinary glucose excretion. No dose adjustment is recommended.
Effect of dapagliflozin on other medicinal products: In interaction studies conducted in healthy subjects, using mainly a single-dose design, dapagliflozin did not alter the pharmacokinetics of metformin, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, glimepiride, hydrochlorothiazide, bumetanide, valsartan, digoxin (a P-gp substrate) or warfarin (S-warfarin, a CYP2C9 substrate), or the anticoagulatory effects of warfarin as measured by INR. Combination of a single dose of dapagliflozin 20 mg and simvastatin (a CYP3A4 substrate) resulted in a 19% increase in AUC of simvastatin and 31% increase in AUC of simvastatin acid. The increase in simvastatin and simvastatin acid exposures are not considered clinically relevant.
Other interactions: The effects of smoking, diet, herbal products and alcohol use on the pharmacokinetics of dapagliflozin have not been studied.
Interference with 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) assay: Monitoring glycaemic control with 1,5-AG assay is not recommended as measurements of 1,5-AG are unreliable in assessing glycaemic control in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors. Use of alternative methods to monitor glycaemic control is advised.
Paediatric population: Interaction studies have only been performed in adults.
Caution For Usage
Special precautions for disposal: No special requirements.
Incompatibilities: Not applicable.
Storage
Store below 30°C.
MIMS Class
ATC Classification
A10BK01 - dapagliflozin ; Belongs to the class of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Used in the treatment of diabetes.
Presentation/Packing
FC tab 5 mg (yellow, biconvex, 0.7 cm diameter round, with "5" engraved on one side and "1427" engraved on the other side) x 28's. 10 mg (yellow, biconvex, approximately 1.1 x 0.8 cm diagonally diamond-shaped, with "10" engraved on one side and "1428" engraved on the other side) x 28's.
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