Urea


Concise Prescribing Info
Indications/Uses
Listed in Dosage.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Adult : IV Raised intracranial pressure; Raised intraocular pressure As 30% soln: 0.5-1.5 g/kg via infusion. Max: 120 g/day or 1.5 g/kg/day. Topical Ichthyosis and hyperkeratotic skin disorders Apply to affected area bid to tid.
Dosage Details
Intravenous
Reduction of raised intracranial pressure, Reduction of raised intraocular pressure
Adult: 0.5-1.5 g/kg of a 30% solution in 5-10% glucose or 10% invert sugar infused at a rate not exceeding 4 ml/min. Max: 120 g or 1.5 g/kg daily.
Child: <2 yr: 100mg/kg.

Topical/Cutaneous
Ichthyosis and hyperkeratotic skin disorders
Adult: Apply to affected area bid to tid.
Renal Impairment
Intravenous:
Use with caution. Severe: Contra-indicated.
Hepatic Impairment
Intravenous:
Use with caution. Severe: contra-indicated.
Incompatibility
Intravenous:
Can cause haemolysis when mixed with whole blood.
Contraindications
Severely impaired renal function, marked dehydration, frank liver failure. Pulmonary congestion or pulmonary oedema, active intracranial bleeding, heart failure. Sickle cell disease with signs and symptoms of CNS involvement.
Special Precautions
Mild to moderate renal or hepatic impairment. Inject into large veins and do not infuse into veins of lower limbs of elderly patients to reduce the risk of thrombosis and phlebitis. Be careful to prevent extravasation. Reduce risk of haemolysis by using glucose or invert sugar solutions as diluent and avoid rapid inj. Do not stop infusion abruptly. Maintain adequate hydration and keep patient horizontal to decrease side effects. Monitor renal function and watch for signs of fluid and electrolyte imbalance. Rebound increase in intracranial and intraocular pressure may occur after 12 hr. Topical applications may be irritant to sensitive skin.
Adverse Reactions
Venous thrombosis or phlebitis at inj site; haemolysis; sloughing or necrosis due to extravasation; fluid and electrolyte imbalance; hypersensitivity reactions; pulmonary oedema. Headache, nausea, vomiting, syncope, disorientation, dizziness, agitation, mental confusion, nervousness, hypotension, tachycardia, cardiotoxicity, hyperthermia.
Topical: B (FDA Pregnancy Category C applies to shampoo, topical paste, and nail lacquer.)
Drug Interactions
Increased excretion of lithium.
Action
Description: Urea is an osmotic diuretic similar to mannitol but more irritant. It induces diuresis by increasing osmotic pressure of the glomerular filtrate and increasing excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride ions. Its osmotic effect also draws water from cells e.g. brain, CSF and anterior chamber of the eye, thereby decreasing intracranial or intraocular pressure. Unlike mannitol, urea penetrates the eye and causes a rebound increase in intraocular pressure if the plasma concentration of the drug is less than that in the vitreous humour. Applied topically, urea promotes hydration of keratin and mild keratolysis in dry skin. It increases water uptake by the stratum corneum and has an antipruritic effect.
Pharmacokinetics:
Absorption: Rapidly absorbed from the GI tract.
Distribution: Distributed in extracellular and intracellular fluids (e.g. lymph, bile, CSF and blood). It crosses the placenta and penetrates the eye.
Excretion: Urine (unchanged).
Disclaimer: This information is independently developed by MIMS based on Urea from various references and is provided for your reference only. Therapeutic uses, prescribing information and product availability may vary between countries. Please refer to MIMS Product Monographs for specific and locally approved prescribing information. Although great effort has been made to ensure content accuracy, MIMS shall not be held responsible or liable for any claims or damages arising from the use or misuse of the information contained herein, its contents or omissions, or otherwise. Copyright © 2020 MIMS. All rights reserved. Powered by MIMS.com
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