Epinephrine


Thông tin thuốc gốc
Chỉ định và Liều dùng
Inhalation/Respiratory
Acute asthma
Adult: Spray: Aqueous solution with an adrenaline content equivalent to 1:100. Pressurised aerosols delivering metered doses equivalent to approximately 160-275 mcg: 1-2 inhalations, may repeat after 3 hr if necessary.

Intramuscular
Anaphylactic shock
Adult: As 1:1,000 solution: 500 mcg (0.5 ml), repeat every 5 minutes as needed until improvement occurs. For emergency self-admin (e.g. via autoinjector): A dose of 300 mcg (0.3 ml) may be used.
Child: Dose depends on age and weight. Usual dose: 10 mcg/kg.

Intravenous
Advanced cardiac life support
Adult: Initially, 1 mg (10 mL of a 1:10,000 solution), may repeat as often as every 3-5 minutes throughout the resuscitation process. May also be given via intraosseous route at the same dosage. For endotracheal doses: 2-2.5 mg every 3-5 minutes.
Child: Initially, 10 mcg/kg, max single dose 1mg, may repeat as often as every 3-5 minutes throughout the resuscitation process via IV or Intraosseous. Endotracheal doses: 100 mcg/kg.  Max single dose 2.5 mg. 

Intravenous
Anaphylactic shock
Adult: 0.5 mg (5 mL of a 1:10,000 solution) given at a slow rate of 100 mcg/minute, stopping when a response is achieved.
Child: 10 mcg/kg. If autoinjectors are used, doses are based on body wt: 15-30 kg: 150 mcg and >30 kg: 300 mcg.

Ophthalmic
Ocular hypertension, Open-angle glaucoma
Adult: Instill 0.5%, 1% or 2% eye drops once or twice daily.

Parenteral
Acute asthma
Adult: As 1:1,000 aqueous solution: 0.3-0.5 ml (300-500 mcg). Dose may be given via IM or SC inj.
Child: As 1:1,000 aqueous solution: 0.01 ml/kg (10 mcg/kg). Max: 0.5 ml (500 mcg). Dose may be given via IM or SC inj.
Chống chỉ định
Preexisting hypertension; occlusive vascular disease; angle-closure glaucoma (eye drops); hypersensitivity; cardiac arrhythmias or tachycardia. When used in addition to local anaesthetics: Procedures involving digits, ears, nose, penis or scrotum.
Thận trọng
CV diseases; hyperthyroidism; DM; Parkinson's disease; elderly; pregnancy, lactation.
Phản ứng phụ
CNS effects; GI disturbances; epigastric pain; CV disorders; difficulty in micturition with urinary retention; dyspnoea; hyperglycaemia; sweating; hypersalivation; weakness, tremors; coldness of extremities; hypokalaemia. Gangrene, tissue necrosis and sloughing (extravasation) when used in addition to local anaesthetics. Eye drops: Severe smarting, blurred vision, photophobia; naso-lachrymal ducts obstruction. Oedema, hyperaemia and inflammation of the eyes with repeated administration.
IM/Intraocular/IV/Parenteral/SC: C
Quá liều
Overdosage intravascular inj of epinephrine may cause cerebral haemorrhage due to a sharp rise in BP. Fatalities may also result from pulmonary oedema because of peripheral vascular constriction together with cardiac stimulation.
Tương tác
Halogenated inhalation anaesthetics; β- or α-blocking agents; methyldopa, guanethidine; drugs with vasoconstrictor and pressor effects; antihypertensives; adrenergic neuron blockers; potassium-depleting drugs; cardiac glycosides; ephedra, yohimbe. TCAs may induce hypertension and arrhythmia.
Lab Interference
Increase in bilirubin, catecholamines, glucose, uric acid.
Tác dụng
Description: Epinephrine, an active principle of the adrenal medulla, is a direct-acting sympathomimetic. It stimulates α- and β-adrenergic receptors resulting in relaxation of smooth muscle of the bronchial tree, cardiac stimulation and dilation of skeletal muscle vasculature. It is frequently added to local anaesthetics to retard diffusion and limit absorption, to prolong the duration of effect and to lessen the danger of toxicity.
Onset: SC: approx 5-10 min; inhalation: approx 1 min; conjunctival instillation: IOP declines approx 1 hr.
Duration: Ocular effect: 12-24 hrs.
Bảo quản
Store at 25°C.
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