Concise Prescribing Info
Dexamethasone Na phosphate
Exacerbation of SLE, nephrotic syndrome w/ minimal change lesions, periarteritis nodosa, mixed connective tissue disease, arteritis temporalis; usually in combination w/ adrenaline in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to drugs or chemicals, serum sickness, transfusion reactions, insect stings & bites, angioneurotic edema, severe hay-fever, Stevens-Johnson syndrome; combat acute allograft rejection. Adjunct therapy for short-term administration in serious cases of RA & rheumatic OA, synovitis, ankylosing spondylitis, polymyalgia rheumatica, acute rheumatic carditis; local administration in cases of acute & subacute bursitis, synovitis, epicondylitis, tendovaginitis. Primary or secondary adrenocortical insufficiency & adrenogenital syndromes (only if supplemented w/ mineralocorticoid therapy), polycystic ovary syndrome, non suppurative thyroiditis, thyrotoxic crisis; in surgery, severe stress or trauma in cases of decreased or doubtful adrenocortical function. Severe cases of pemphigus & pemphigoid, exfoliative & other serious cases of dermatitis, mycosis, fungoides, erythema multiforme, locally in keloids & some cases of alopecia aerata. Severe acute or chronic allergic inflammatory processes of the eye and its adnexa (subconjunctivally, retrobulbarly or systematically) eg, allergic conjunctivitis, iritis, iridocyclitis, choroiditis, optic neuritis, sympathetic ophthalmia, scar-prevention in the eye surgery & eye injuries. Induce remission of ulcerative colitis & regional enteritis; some cases of chronic hepatitis, especially the aggressive form w/ hyperimmunity; esophagitis corrosiva, some cases of coeliac disease, eosinophilic (gastro) enteritis. Pericarditis (idiopathic, post MI & post commissurotomic syndrome). Asthmatic pulmonary eosinophilia & allergic alveolitis, aspiration pneumonitis, severe bronchial asthma & other chronic nonspecific obstructive lung disease; diffuse interstitial pulmonary processes; as part of the treatment of laryngotracheobronchitis & resp distress syndrome in adults; in combination w/ tuberculostatic therapy in fulminating TB. Idiopathic & secondary thrombocytopenia purpura (IV) only, autoimmunehemolytic anemia, idiopathic immunogranulocytopenia (agranulocytosis), acute & chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myelocytic leukemia (blastemic crisis), Hodgkin's disease, other malignancies of the lymphoid & hystocytic tissue, multiple myeloma, advanced myeloma refractory to alkylating agents, macroglobulinemia; as antiemetic in antineoplastic regimens; palliative treatment in terminal stages of neoplastic disease. Cerebral edema particularly those forms resulting from brain tumors, brain abscesses & neurosurgical interventions (in the latter case, also for prevention of brain edema); myoclonic seizures in epilepsy, pseudotumor cerebri, severe myasthenia gravis resistant to anticholinesterase therapy & thymectomy, in some cases of acute multiple sclerosis & peripheral neuritis; acute mountain sickness. Prevention of inflammatory edema & adhesions in surgery; in most cases of TB meningitis, pericarditis, peritonitis & pleuritis (in combination w/ tubercolostatic therapy); antenatal, in the prevention of neonatal resp distress syndrome; severe trichinosis, hypercalcemia eg, associated w/ antineoplastic diseases, hypervitaminosis-D, idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia.
Dosage/Direction for Use
Systemic therapy 0.05-0.2 mg/kg daily. Cerebral edema Adult Initially 10-20 mg IV followed by 6 mg IV/IM 6 hrly. Local therapy IA 2-4 mg in large & 0.8-1 mg in small joints. IB 2-4 mg; 0.4-1 mg in tendon sheaths. Frequency: 3-5 days every 2-3 wk. Rectal drip in cases of ulcerative colitis 5 mg diluted in 120 mL saline.
Systemic therapy: Hypersensitivity to glucocorticoids, sulfites or benzyl alcohol. Gastric & duodenal ulcers, systemic fungal infection, viral infection eg, varicella & herpes genitalia infections, glaucoma. Local therapy: Hypersensitivity to glucocorticoids. Infection at the affected site eg, septic arthritis resulting from gonorrhea or TB, bacteremia, systemic fungal infections, instability of the joint.
Special Precautions
Monitor latent or overt cardiac failure, renal impairment, HTN or migraine, fluid retention, osteoporosis, history of psychotic illness & latent TB; parasitic infestation eg, amoebiasis, incomplete statural growth. Glucose metabolism should be monitored in long-term therapy. Gradual reduction after prolonged use. Contains Na bisulfite & benzyl alcohol (may cause hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylactic symptoms & life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible patients). Pregnancy & lactation.
Adverse Reactions
Gastric & duodenal ulcer (w/ possible perforation & hemorrhage); transient burning or tingling sensation; Cushing-like syndrome, hirsutism, menstrual irregularities, premature epiphyseal closure, secondary adrenocortical & pituitary unresponsiveness, decreased glucose tolerance, -ve nitrogen & Ca balance. Na & fluid retention, HTN, K loss, hypokalemic alkalosis; myopathy, abdominal distention, osteoporosis, aseptic necrosis of femoral & humeral heads; impaired wound healing, skin atrophy, striae, petechiae & ecchymoses, bruising, facial erythema, increased sweating, acne; psychic disturbances ranging from euphoria to frank psychotic manifestations, convulsions, in childn, pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial HTN) w/ vomiting & papilloedema; glaucoma, IOP, posterior subcapsular cataracts; increased susceptibility to infections, decreased responsiveness to vaccination & skin tests; local adverse reactions including post-inj flare & painless destruction of the joint reminiscent of Charcot's arthropathy (especially w/ repeated IA inj).
ATC Classification
H02AB02 - dexamethasone ; Belongs to the class of glucocorticoids. Used in systemic corticosteroid preparations.
Dexamet inj 5 mg/mL
(amp) 10 × 1's (P1,343.75/box)
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